|05-08-2009, 12:05 AM||#21|
Join Date: Apr 2008
The book itself contains information regarding the creation of certain magical properties, such as talismanic rings, amulets and the Black Pullet itself. The book also teaches the reader how to master the extraordinary powers from these magical properties. Perhaps the most interesting magical property is the power to produce the Black Pullet, otherwise known as the Hen that lays Golden Eggs. The person who understands and attains the power to instruct the Black Pullet will gain unlimited wealth. The notion of such a lucrative possession has been reflected throughout history in fables, fairy tales and folklore.
This text has often been associated to two other texts, known as the Red Dragon (or The Grand Grimoire) and the Black Screech Owl (also known as The Black Pullet or Treasure of the Old Man of the Pyramids). Each of the above are examples of grimoires that claim to possess the science of ancient magic.
J.G. Gichtel's "Theosophia practica," is published, containing a collection of letters written by Gichtel, gathered and published by one of his disciples.
Manget Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa, an important alchemical compendium, is published by Jean-Jacques Manget. This book claims to reveal the secrets of the physical work of the philosophers stone, however, though it stays close to its theme it uses metaphorical and philosophical allusions to the process, rather than approaching it directly in physical terms. The author indicates in the preface the reason for the title of his book "We therefore... do raise this knowledge, buried and obscured under the pretext of the Tomb of the most wise Semiramis, formerly Queen of Babylon..."
Moses Hayyim Luzzatto, Hebrew poet and Qabalistic mystic, is born Padua.
J.G. Gichtel passes.
"The True and Complete Preparation of the Philosopher's stone of the Fraternity of the Golden and Rosy Cross" is published in Breslau by Samuel Richter under the pseudonym, Sincerus Renatus. This is the first published mention of the Gold und Rosenkreutz (Golden and Rosy Cross) fraternity. Richter was a Lutheran pastor who had studied theology in Halle apparently used the name Sicerus Renatus (sincerely reborn) as a motto in a lodge of the "Unzertrennlichen" called "Sincera Confoederatio." He was also a follower of Jacob Boeme (1575-1624). This important work describes not only a number of alchemical processes, but as well explains the constitution and 52 rules of the Golden and Rosy Cross fraternity, which in part Richter took directly from the "Unzertrennlichen" order. Richter is seen by many as the founder of the Golden and Rosy Cross, which at the time of Richter apparently consisted of a loose-knit group of alchemists sharing their work with one another. The fraternity appears to be have been widely spread and working in secret. Considering that Johan Valentine Andreae was also a member of the "Unzertrennlichen," it appears that this order had an enormous influence on the emergence of Rosicrucianism, and that perhaps the Golden and Rosy Cross order in Germany was an even outer emanation of the former.
The United Grand Lodge of England of Freemasonry is formed. From this point on, there is substantial documentary evidence for the existence of Freemasonry.
Georg von Welling's "Opus Mago-Cabalisticum et Theosophicum" is published. This is an important and influential esoteric work, which influences numerous subsequent authors, including Goethe, who perused it during his alchemical studies. The title suggests a great deal about the contents, which have as much to do with magic as theosophy, as much to do with Agrippa, elemental spirits, alchemy, and arcane diagrams as with Böhmean cosmology. This work stongly influences the emerging German, Golden and Rosy Cross order.
The 'Golden Chain of Homer', written or edited by Anton Josef Kirchweger, is first issued at Frankfurt and Leipzig in four German editions in 1723, 1728, 1738 and 1757. A Latin version is issued at Frankfurt in 1762, and further German editions follow. This work has an enormous influence on Rosicrucan alchemy and on the Golden and Rosy Cross order. In the late eighteenth century Sigismund Bacstrom will make a rather poor translation of the work into English. Part of the work is eventually published in the Theosophical Society Journal 'Lucifer' in 1891.
Georg von Welling passes.
"Deutsches theatrum chemicum," an important alchemical compendium, is published by Friedrich Roth-Scholtz.
The 18th century book Abraham Eleazar, Uraltes chymisches Werck, Erfurt, 1735, contains a work entitled Donum Dei by Simon Baruch, which has a series of engravings related to the Eleazar series.
Moses Hayyim Luzzatto passes.
Swedenborg's "Arcana Coelestia" is published.
Hermann Fictuld's (Baron Johann Friedrich von Meinstorff) alchemical tract, "Aureum Vellus oder Goldenes Vliess," is published.
Dr. Sigismond Bacstrom, physician who was also an alchemist and a Rosicrucian, is born. Believed to be of Scandinavian origin, he spent some time as a ship's surgeon. While visiting the island of Mauritius, he met the mysterious occultist and alchemist Comte Louis de Chazel, who initiated him into a Societas Rosae Crucis. De Chazel owned an extensive library of occult and mystical works and a well-equipped laboratory for astronomical observations and alchemical experiments. He informed Bacstrom that he had succeeded in making the philosophers' stone and demonstrated the transmutation of quicksilver into gold. Subsequently Bacstrom lived in London and had discussions with other individuals interested in hermetic subjects. He translated a number of treatises on alchemy from German, French, and Latin into English, adding his own commentaries. His manuscript Essay on Alchemy was published in a limited edition under the title Bacstrom's Alchemical Anthology, edited by J. W. Hamilton-Jones (1960).
The alchemical tract, "Hermaphroditisches Sonn und Monds Kind" (The Hermaphrodite Child of the Sun and Moon) is published. This tract analyzes the natural and supernatural birth, destruction, and regeneration of the symbolical child and introduces the theory and practice of how to quest for and manufacture the Philosopher's Stone. The tract includes applications and explanations of verses by the famous Swedish Adept Norton, from an ancient manuscript and includes the qabalistic signs of Solomon, "explained by a master-student of nature." Most importantly, the tract includes 12 emblematical figures with corresponding explanatory paragraphs.
The "Dictionnaire Mytho-Hermetique" is published by Dom Pernety. This dictionary is useful in attempting to understand the mythic and Hermetic allegories contained in alchemical texts and images.
The Golden and Rosy Cross order holds a general reformation of the order, presided over by Hermann Fictuld (Baron Johann Friedrich von Meinstorff). The Rosicrucian tradition moves into a Freemasonic phase, as henceforth the Golden and Rosy Cross order admits only Master Masons.
Emanuel Swedenborg passes.
Adam Weishaupt forms the Order of Illuminati of Bavaria.
The Golden and Rosy Cross order holds another General Reformation, this time presided over by reigning Imperator, "Phoebron" (Dr. Bernhard Joseph Schleiss von Löwenfeld).
Der Compass der Weisen is published. In this work that has been described as the `Bible' of the German, Golden and Rosy Cross Order, we find an extensive survey of alchemical and Rosicrucian writings, compiled by a frater Roseae et Aureae Crucis with the partial aim of making them comprehensible within the context of Freemasonry. The author names a number of early modern writers as authorities, including Michael Maier, Heinrich Khunrath, Robert Fludd, Thomas Vaughan, Gerhard Dorn, Basil Valentine and Adrian von Mynsicht. The introduction deals with the occult knowledge of the Egyptians.
The order of the Asiatic Brethren (Fratres Lucis) is founded by Hans Heinrich von Ecker und Eckhoffen as a schismatic order from the Golden and Rosy Cross. The Asiatic Brethren admits Jews and the Order's theosophic doctrines and ceremonial regulations are based upon the Qabalah of the movement of Sabbatai Zevi, the Jewish rabbi and Qabalist who claimed to be the long-awaited Jewish Messiah. Sabbataen Qabalistic teachings incorporated into the order make the an important connection, with a later Frankfurt Jewish Masonic Lodge, "Loge zur aufgehenden Morgenrothe," to which numerous high ranking members of the Asiatic Brethren belonged. The Sabbatean Qabalah found in both of these orders is found again in the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn.
"Der Rosenkreutzer in seiner Bloesse" (The Rosicrucian Unveiled) is published by Magister Pianco (Hans Heinrich von Ecker und Eckhoffen), leader of the schismatic, Asiatic Brethren order. This work attacks the Golden and Rosy Cross order, to which von Ecker und Eckhoffen formerly belonged, and reveals numerous secret details about the Golden and Rosy Cross order, including its system of Grades (later found again in the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn).
8. August - The Golden and Rosy Cross order comes to political power as the Prussian King becomes Grand Master, assuming the order name, "Ormesus Magnus." High ranking members of the Golden and Rosy Cross order quickly become part of the Prussian court. Johann Rudolf von Bischoffwerder (1741-1803) becomes Prime Minister and Johann Christoph von Wöllner (1732-1800) becomes Justice Minister.
"Der im Lichte der Wahrheit strahlende Rosenkreuzer allen lieben Mitmenschen auch dem Magister Pianco zum Nutzen hingestellt" (The Rosicrucian Shining in the Light of Truth) is published by Phoebron, leader of the Golden and Rosy Cross order (Dr. Bernhard Joseph Schleiss von Löwenfeld), as an answer to the attack on the G+RC published by Magister Pianco, the leader of the schismatic, Asiatic Brethren (Hans Heinrich von Ecker und Eckhoffen).
James Price commits suicide after performing some alchemical experiments.
The "Secret Symbols of the Rosicrucians," an extremely important text of Rosicrucian alchemical symbolism, is first published in Altona as "Geheime Figuren der Rosenkreuzer, aus dem 16ten und 17ten Jahrhundert. Erstes Heft. Aus emem alten Mscpt. zum erstenmal ans Licht gestelit." This 18th century compendium draws on 17th century alchemical sources such as Adrian von Mynsich, with mystical pieces from Valentin Weigel, and Abraham von Franckenberg's works on Jacob Boehme. It is an important and influential source of Rosicrucian ideas, albeit filtered through an 18th century perspective.
Dr Sigismund Bacstrom is initiated into a Rosicrucian society by the Comte de Chazal on the Island of Mauritius. The Count, then a venerable old man of some 96 years, seems to have seen in Bacstrom his greatness as an hermetic student and offered to take him on as a pupil and teach him the great work. During this period, Bacstrom was allowed to perform a transmutation under Chazal's guidance and using his substances. The Comte de Chazal was connected with the French stream of Rosicrucianism probably linking back to the Comte de St Germain.
|06-08-2009, 03:22 PM||#22|
Join Date: Dec 2007
|06-08-2009, 03:53 PM||#23|
Join Date: Jun 2009
very informative so far! can't await the 19th century timeline could you please highlight the relations between rosicrucians, masonry, the hermetic order of the golden dawn, theosophy/anthroposophy and the newly emerging lodges in germany (such as thule society, fraternitas saturni, o.t.o. etc.) in the late 19th and early 20th century? would love to know more about their intertwining and exchange of ideas...
Last edited by hierophant; 06-08-2009 at 03:55 PM.
|06-08-2009, 09:18 PM||#24|
Join Date: Apr 2008
Leave no stone unturned. Euripides, Heraclidae, circa 428 B.C.. Greek tragic dramatist (484 BC -406 BC)
|06-08-2009, 09:23 PM||#25|
Join Date: Apr 2008
19th century CE, allegedly 1522
19th century CE, allegedly 1522
The "Grand Grimoire" is a black magic grimoire that claims to date back to 1522. It is widely suspected that it was written some time in the 19th century. It was ostensibly published in Cairo by a person known as Alibek the Egyptian. Also known as "The Red Dragon", this book contains instructions purported to summon Lucifer or Lucifuge Rofocale for the purpose of forming a pact. Sections of it are found in Waite's Book of Ceremonial Magic and in Hyatt and Black's Pacts with the Devil. The book is called "Le Veritable Dragon Rouge" ("The Red Dragon") in Haiti, where it is revered among many practitioners of Vodou and Santeria.
Chemische Versuche, an alchemical tract, is published by German Catholic mystic, Karl von Eckartshausen (1752 - 1803) Karl von Eckartshausen is also the author of The Cloud upon the Sanctuary. This Christian mystical work which is later taken up by occultists. It is given a high status in the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, particularly by Arthur Edward Waite.
Dr. Sigismund Bacstrom passes.
The Freemasonic "Loge St. John de L'aurore Naissante" is chartered in Frankfurt by the Grand Orient of France while Frankfurt is occupied by the Grande Armee of Napoleon. L'aurore Naissante admits both Jews and Gentiles. The name is later changed to "Loge zur aufgehenden Morgenrothe, "Chabrath Zereh Boqer Aour" in Hebrew, which may be rendered in English as Order of the Golden Dawn. Indeed, the same Hebrew name later appears on the "Cypher Manuscripts" with which the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn is founded in 1888. Among the members of this Frankfurt lodge, many high ranking members of the Asiatic Brethren are eventually to be found, as is its Sabbatean Qabalah, also later found as well in the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn in England.
British occultist, Frederick Hockley, who was a member of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, is born. Hockley collects some important occult texts, including a Rosicrucian manuscript belonging to Sigismond Bacstrom, who was initiated into an occult society in Mauritius in 1794. This text has a great influence on British occultism. Hockley has a gifted of crystal gazer and was a close friend of Kenneth R. H. Mackenzie and other British Rosicrucians and occultists of his period. He was a pupil of Francis Barrett, author of The Magus (1801). Hockley died November 10, 1885.
Eliphas Levi, (Constant, Alphonse Louis), French occultist, is born in Paris, France. He is said to be largely responsible for the revival of magic in the 19th century.
William Alexander Ayton, modern alchemist and member of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, is born. He becomes a clergyman of the Church of England in 1843. Ayton was a Freemason and Theosophist as well as a member of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia before becoming one of the early members of the Golden Dawn in July 1888 at the age of 72, together with his wife. He took the magical motto Virtute Orta Occident Rarius (Those that rise by virtue rarely fall), his wife, Anne, took Soror Quam Potero Adjutabo (I will help as much as I can). With his wife, he had been a secret practitioner of alchemy for many years and claimed to have rediscovered the elixir of life.
Frederick Hockley experiments with crystal gazing, begins career in esotericism. He eventually becomes a member of MacKenzie's Golden Dawn precursor, the "Society of Eight" (Fratres Lucis).
Francis George Irwin, imminent freemason, friend and correspondent to A.E. Waite, Wynn Westcott, Kenneth Mackenzie and William Woodman, is born.
British physician William Robert Woodman is born. Woodman becomes a member of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia and one of the founders (with W. W. Westcott and S. L. M. Mathers) of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Woodman is a student of Qabalah, Egyptian antiquities, Gnosticism, and Platonism. In 1867 he becomes secretary of the S.R.I.A. and in 1878 becomes supreme magus. His magical motto in the Golden Dawn was "Vincit Omnia Veritas" (Truth rules all).
Helena Petrovna Blavatski (Helena Petrovna von Hahn), cofounder of the Theosophical Society, is born of German parents in Yekaterinoslav (now Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine). Blavatsky becomes one of the most influential occult thinkers of the nineteenth century, Madame Blavatsky left behind conflicting images of adventuress, author, mystic, guru, occultist, and charlatan. With the aid of Col. Henry Olcott and William Q. Judge, she founded the Theosophical Society in New York in 1875.
Henry Steel Olcott, cofounder of the Theosophical Society, is born. Joint founder with Helena Petrovna Blavatsky and William Q. Judge of the Theosophical Society. Olcott was born August 2, 1832, in Orange, New Jersey, where his father had a farm. At the age of twenty-six, Olcott was associate agricultural editor of the New York Tribune and traveled abroad to study European farming methods. Olcott served in the Civil War and afterward became a special commissioner with the rank of colonel. In 1868, he was admitted to the New York bar. In 1878, he was commissioned by the president to report on trade relations between the U.S. and India.
Kenneth MacKenzie, Freemasonic Scholar and Rosicrucian, is born in London. MacKenzie eventually receives a Rosicrucian initiation from Count Apponyi, as well as the material for the Cypher Manuscripts with which the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn is eventually founded.
In 1844 his family moves to Vienna. Kenneth Robert Henderson Mackenzie became a prominent British occultist, an honorary magus of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, and a member of the Hermetic Society of the Golden Dawn. As a young man he had an impressive knowledge of German, French, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew and had a precocious talent for antiquarian studies. He was author of the Royal Masonic Cyclopaedia (1877) In 1861 Mackenzie visited the famous French occultist Éliphas Lévi (Alphonse Louis Constant) in Paris and published vivid personal recollections of the man and his outlook in the Rosicrucian, the journal of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia. He also studied occultism with Frederick Hockley (1808-1885).
As the first phase of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, MacKenzie founded a group known as the "Society of Eight" (Fratres Lucis) with his own temple as Number one, followed by the Bristol temple of F.G. Irwin as Number two. Isis-Urania Temple became Number three when the Golden Dawn was founded in 1888.
Lord Bulwer-Lytton publishes Zanoni.
Edward Berridge, British homeopathic physician who plays an important role in the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn is born. Berridge is believed to have qualified as a medical doctor in London and as a homoeopathist in the United States. Berridge joined the Golden Dawn in May 1889, taking the magical name "Respiro" and the motto "Resurgam" (I shall rise again). He is influenced by the writings of Thomas Lake Harris, and his psychosexual theories and practices in relation to the occult. He is given training in Hermetic Inner Alchemy and its related sexual practices by S.L. MacGregor Mathers. His indiscretion causes a conflict with prudish, Annie Horniman, and Mathers is eventually drawn into the conflict. During all rebellions and schisms, Berridge remains loyal to Mathers.
Anna Kingsford (Annie Bonus) is born. Founder of Esoteric Christianity, which combined insights from Gnosticism, the Sufis, and proponents of spiritual alchemy. She was born Anna Bonus at Stratford, Essex, England, September 16, 1846. Even as a child, she displayed unusual psychic gifts and claimed kinship with fairies, who were said to visit her during sleep. She told fortunes at school and seems to have been something of a seeress. In 1883, Kingsford became president of the Theosopical Society, and in 1884 Kingsford and Maitland founded the Hermetic Society in Britain for the study of mystical Christianity. Both S.L. MacGregor Mathers and W.Wynn Wescott, two founders of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, lectured there.
Annie Besant (née Wood), a prominent Theosophist, women's rights activist, writer and orator, is born.
William Wynn Westcott, a British esotericist, coroner, ceremonial magician, and Freemason, is born. A doctor of medicine by profession, he becomes active in Freemasonry in 1871. He eventually became the Supreme Magus of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia and one of the founders of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. He obtains the Cypher Manuscripts from Kenneth MacKenzie's widow, yet attributes them to a certain, Anna Sprengel. Wescott later claims that MacKenzie founded the S.R.I.A. and even falsifies the roll book, in an attempt to appropriate the MacKenzie Rosicrucian affiliation for the S.R.I.A. that was intended for the Golden Dawn.
Kenneth Mackenzie receives a Rosicrucian initiation in Austria while living with Hungarian Count Apponyi as an English tutor. More importantly, Count Apponyi, who is a member of the Continental secret alchemical society, known publicly only as the "Secret Chiefs" (Geheime Oberen) also initiates MacKenzie is initiated into Hermetic Alchemy. Apponyi transmits to MacKenzie a Rosicrucian affiliation and esoteric transmissions with which to found what will eventually become the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn in England. MacKenzie encrypts certain of these documents using a code from Trithemius' Polygraphiae. This is the origin of the so-called, "Cipher Manuscripts," with which the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn is later founded.
It should be noted that at the time of MacKenzie's initiation, both the Gold und Rosenkreutz (Golden and Rosy Cross) order and the order of the Asiatic brethren were active in Austria and that the grade structure of the Gold und Rosenkreutz order found its way directly into the Golden Dawn. Moreover, the name that MacKenzie chose for the first phase of the Golden Dawn, Fratres Lucis, was actually a common name for the Asiatic Brethren. Further, the very name of the order, derives directly from the Frankfurt Jewish Masonic Lodge, "Loge zur aufgehenden Morgenrothe, "Chabrath Zereh Boqer Aour" in Hebrew, which may be rendered in English as Order of the Golden Dawn. Finally, it should additionally be noted that among the senior members of this lodge, were some of the most prominent figures of the Asiatic Brethren to be found.
Lord Bulwer Lytton is supposed to have been admitted to a Lodge at Frankfurt-an-Main.
Kenneth MacKenzie returns to London.
Robert William Felkin is born; medical missionary and explorer, a ceremonial magician and member of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Robert and Mary joined the Theosophical Society in Edinburgh in 1886, but found it lacking in terms of ritual, and eventually joining Brodie-Innes' Amen-Ra Temple of the Golden Dawn on 12 March 1894. Following the rebellion and press scandal, Felkin founds in 1903 the "Stella Matutina," a schismatic order deriving from the Golden Dawn. Felkin's main temple in London was called Amoun. He moves to New Zealand in 1912 and takes the leadership of the Stella Matutina with him. The order is later called the Smaragdum Thalasses.
Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers is born in London.
Leading British occultist who is one of the founders of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn and later founds the Rosicrucian Order of Alpha et Omega. His grandfather fought with great gallantry at the siege of Pondicherry, with Lally Tollendal, and received from Louis XIV the title of Count MacGregor de Glenstrae, afterwards confirmed by James II, a French title that naturally was not used in England. Mathers becomes a Freemason on October 4, 1877, and a Master Mason on January 30, 1878, soon after his 24th birthday. His mystical interests lead him to become a member of the Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (Rosicrucian Society of England), where he is an associate of William Wynn Westcott, William Robert Woodman, and Kenneth Mackenzie. Together with Westcott and Woodman, Mathers founds the Golden Dawn in 1888. Meanwhile he lives in poverty after the death of his mother in 1885 and spends much time researching occultism at the British Museum Library, London. Following his marriage with Mina Bergson, Mathers moves to Paris, where he remains in contact with his "Secret Chiefs." Following a rebellion of adepts and a press scandal, Mathers closes the HOGD in 1903 and reopens the order as the Rosicrucian Order of Alpha et Omega (also known as the Alpha et Omega or AO). Eliphas Levi visits London.
Levi's masterpiece Le Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie is published.
Arthur Edward Waite, British scholar and historian of occultism and mysticism, is born. Arthur Edward Waite is born in Brooklyn and moves to London, England. Waite's personal friends eventually include Arthur Machen and Ralph Shirley. He also met William Butler Yeats, Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, Annie Besant, Rudolf Steiner, Wynn Westcott, Algernon Blackwood, and Aleister Crowley. He becomes also a Freemason and authority on Masonic writings. In 1891 Waite joins the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn and ides with the schismatic adepts and in the wake of the collapse of the Golden Dawn in 1915, he founds the Fellowship of the Rosy Cross. Waite remains best known for his work with Pamela Coleman-Smith in the production of a deck of tarot cards (the Waite deck) and his commentary on the tarot, The Key to the Tarot (1910).
Frederick Leigh Gardner, British occultist and member of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn occult society is born.
Gardner's private papers and correspondence have helped to throw light on some aspects of the Golden Dawn and its members, such as W. W. Westcott, S. L. M. Mathers, and W. A. Ayton.
Florence Farr, actress, author, and leading member of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn is born. Farr is initiated into the Golden Dawn in 1890. She progresses quickly and two years later is named Praemonstratrix. She demonstrates her accomplishments in her first books, A Short Enquiry into the Hermetic Art (1894) and Egyptian Magic (1896). In 1896 she begins the Sphere group, a magical working group that includes Inner Order adepts. The following year S.L. MacGregor Mathers, the international leader of the order, names her the order's "Chief in Anglia." However, her leadership also means that she will be in the center of the storm that hits the order in 1900 when many of the British members protest the autocratic authority that Mathers is attempting to exercise from his office in Paris. The controversy leads to an attempted expulsion of Mathers from his own order by misguided "Adepts." Farr tires of the constant bickering and in 1902 resigns from the HOGD and continues her involvement in occult matters through the Theosophical Society.
Annie Horniman, a British dramatist and student of magic, is born. Her grandfather, a wealthy Quaker tea merchant, invented the tea bag, and she herself is quite wealthy. She met Mina Bergson (Moina Mathers in 1882 at art school, which leads her to the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. She is initiated in 1890 and takes the magical motto "Fortiter et Recte." She progresses rapidly, and the following year is the first initiate in the more advanced, Second Order. In 1893 she becomes sub-Praemonstratrix of the Isis Urania Temple. She also becomes a major financial backer of Mathers as he continues to develop the Golden Dawn.
In 1896 Horniman emerges as the opponent within the Golden Dawn of Dr. Edward Berridge, who advocates occult sexual theories. Prudish Horniman is scandalized. Unbeknownst to Horniman, Mathers has discretely confided certain "Third Order" techniques to Berridge of "Hermetic Inner Alchemy" that involve sexuality. When Mathers sides with Berridge, she resigns as sub-Praemonstratrix of Isis Urania. She continues as scribe for several years, but in 1903 has a final break with Mathers. Before the end of the year, she is expelled from the order. In the following years she throws herself into theater work and in the 1930s will be honored for her contributions to the British stage. After many years away from the occult, in 1921 Horniman joined the Quest Society formed by theosophist George R. S. Mead.
Rudolph Steiner is born.
Eliphas Levi again visits London.
Kenneth MacKenzie visits Eliphas Levi in Paris.
Frederick Hockley joins British Masonic Lodge No. 8.
|09-08-2009, 12:10 AM||#26|
Join Date: Apr 2008
Famous Irish poet, playwright, and mystic., William Butler Yeats is born. The occult and mystical side of his life and work receives less publicity than his literary work, yet he believes that his poetry owes much to his occult studies. While in London at the end of 1888, he joins the Esoteric Section of the Theosophical Society. In 1890, he joins the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, taking the magical motto "Demon Est Deus Inversus," (DEDI) and continues to be associated with the Golden Dawn over some thirty years. In April 1900, he clashes with Aleister Crowley, also an order member, in a leadership crisis.
Papus (i.e. G.A.V. Encausse), French occultist and author is born.
Moina Mathers is born as Mina Bergson, the daughter of Jewish parents and the sister of noted philosopher Henri Bergson. She becomes a leading member of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn and is largely responsible for the rituals of this ground-breaking magical organization. In 1887, at the British Museum, she meets Samuel L. MacGregor Mathers. He is, at the time, doing the initial research that would lead to the founding of the H.O.G.D. The Isis-Urania Temple, the first center of the HOGD, opens in 1888 and Mina becomes the first initiate, taking the magical name Vestigia Nulla Retrorsum. The couple is married in 1890, at which time Mina changes her name to Moina. In 1891, Mathers makes contact with the "Secret Chiefs," from whom he would receives the material to construct the higher grades of the order. As Mathers increases his magical activity, Moina serves as his priestess. In 1892, the Mathers settle in Paris, where Samuel has access to the large number of manuscripts in the Parisian libraries. In 1903, following a rebellion of Adepts and scandal in the press, S.L. MacGregor Mathers summarily closes the HOGD and reopens it as the Rosicrucian Order of Alpha et Omega. The loyal Adepts flock to him. Following Mathers' death in 1918, Moina moves back to London from where she presides over the Alpha et Omega until her death.
S.R.I.A. - Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (S.R.I.A.) - a nominally Rosicrucian Freemasonic research society is founded by Robert Wentworth Little (1840-78).
Elsa Barker, prominent member of the Rosicrucian Order of Alpha et Omega, American novelist and poet, is born. Barker becomes the personal emissary of S.L. MacGregor Mathers to the Alpha et Omega temples in America. Her rose+cross has been passed down over generations and has belonged to several prominent occultists including Israel Regardie and Cris Monnastre. It is presently owned by David Griffin.
Kenneth MacKenzie joins a conventional English Masonic Lodge, Oak Lodge, No. 190.
Kenneth MacKenzie is made an Honorary member of S.R.I.A.
Allan Bennett, British occultist, at one time the teacher of Aleister Crowley, whom he met when they were both members of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (Iehi Aour), is born. Bennett's inclination was primarily toward mysticism rather than the occult. He became increasingly fascinated by Buddhism, and at the age of 28 decided to travel abroad to study Buddhism and to seek relief for his asthma. He founded the Buddhasasana Samagama, or International Buddhist Society, in 1903, and became a major exponent of Buddhism in the West.
24 April - Eliphas Levi is made an honorary member of S.R.I.A.
Kenneth MacKenzie is made Assistant Secretary of the S.R.I.A.
Eliphas Levi, (Constant, Alphonse Louis) passes.
Madame Helena P. Blatavsky and Colonel H. S. Olcott form Theosophical Society in New York.
Frederick Holland is elected to the Metropolitan College of the S.R.I.A. and Kenneth MacKenzie resigns from the S.R.I.A.
Aleister Crowley, the most renowned magic practitioner and theoretician of the twentieth century, is born. In 1898 he is initiated into the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, introduced by George Cecil Jones. He is befriended by Mathers, whom he eventually betrays, nearly destroying the Rosicrucian Order of Alpha et Omega by publishing its secret rituals and teachings. In 1903 Crowley marries Rose Kelly, and in 1904 they travel to Egypt, where he and his wife channel his "Book of the Law." Having left the Golden Dawn, in 1907 Crowley founds the Argentum Astrum (AA; Silver Star). He went on to become the head of the Ordo Templi Orientis (O.T.O.).
Blatavsky publishes Isis Unveiled.
Robert Wentworth Little dies. Dr. W. R. Woodman succeeds him as Supreme Magus of the S.R.I.A.
Dr. William Wynn Westcott joins the S.R.I.A.
Kenneth MacKenzie founds an elite esoteric organization as the first phase of what later is to become the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. This organization, called Fratres Lucis, becomes publicly known as The Society of Eight. Notables such as Francis George Irwin and Frederick Holland were members. It is unclear whether Hockley was a member. In a note to F.G. Irwin, MacKenzie says that Stainton Moses (a noted Spiritist) and William Wynn Westcott are not to be admitted.
Two temples of this precursor society to the Golden Dawn are founded in England, MacKenzie's temple being No. 1, with Temple No. 2 in Bristol under F.G. Irwin. MacKenzie never transmits the rituals for this new order, but merely preserves them as "Cypher Manuscripts."
Anna Kingsford becomes president of London Lodge of the Theosophical Society - at this time a very small and insignificant organization.
Anna Kingsford resigns, forms Hermetic Society. Westcott and Mathers both lecture there.
Paul Foster Case, American occultist of the early 20th Century and author of numerous books on Tarot and Qabalah, is born.
In 1918, Case meets Michael Whitty, the Cancellarius of Thoth-Hermes Temple of the Rosicrucian Order of Alpha et Omega. The Alpha et Omega was founded by S. L. MacGregor Mathers' following a rebellion of misguided H.O.G.D. Adepts. Whitty invites Case to join the outer order of the Alpha et Omega, the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Case is initiated and chooses Perserverantia (perseverance) as his motto. In 1920, Case is initiated into A.O's Second Order, the R.R+A.C. The same year, Case becomes Sub-Praemonstrator (Assistant Chief-Instructor) at the Thoth-Hermes Temple. When Michael Whitty dies, Case became Praemonstrator. In 1921, Moina Mathers wrote to Case about concerns that had been voiced to her about his inappropriately teaching about esoteric sexuality in the First or Outer order. The teachings regarding Hermetic Inner Alchemy, which involves sexuality, were reserved for the highest grades of the Alpha et Omega. Case resigns as Praemonstrator. In 1922, Case requests permission to demit from the Thoth-Hermes temple, but is expelled by Moina Mathers instead. In June, 1922, Case meets with a representative of the "Secret Chiefs," the same Continental secret alchemical society that had given the material to found the Golden Dawn to Kenneth MacKenzie and to found its Second Order, the R.R.+A.C., to Mathers. This representative, who introduces himself to Case in the Hotel Astor in New York as "Master R," provides Case with the materials with which Case founds the Builders of the Adytum (B.O.T.A.).
Frederick Hockley passes.
Kenneth MacKenzie passes. W. Wynn Westcott becomes Grand Secretary of the Swedenborgian Rite after Kenneth MacKenzie's death in 1886. Wescott obtains numerous of MacKenzie's documents for his widow. Among these documents, Wescott finds the "Cipher Manuscripts" for the new order from which MacKenzie had wished Wescott excluded. Wescott invents a story of an imaginary origin of the Cypher Manuscripts as coming from a Fraulein Anna Sprengel, thus diverting attention from Kenneth MacKenzie as the source.
23 December - A.F.A. Woodford dies.
Anna Kingsford (Annie Bonus) passes.
Papus' Traité Elémentaire de Science Occulte is published.
1 March - The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn is founded in London using the Cypher Manuscripts obtained from Kenneth MacKenzie. Isis-Urania Temple No. 3. (The first two were MacKenzie's and Irwin's temples of the Society of Eight) The first initiate is Mina Bergson (Vestigia nulla retrorsum - "Vestigia") . She later becomes Moina Mathers.
12 February - Dr. William Wynn Westcott (Sapere Aude - S.A. - originally Non Omnis Moriar), Dr. William Robert Woodman (Magna es Veritas - M.V.), and Samuel Liddell Mathers ('S Rioghail Mo Dhream - S.R.M.D.) sign the Order of H.O.G.D. pledge.
October - Helena P. Blavatsky launches the Esoteric Section of the Theosophical Society. Membership in other Hermetic organizations is forbidden. Rev. William Alexander Ayton (Virtue orta, occidunt rarius - V.O.O.R.) initially writes to some of his Yorkshire colleagues, and they launch a protest over Blavatsky's refusal to allow membership in other organizations. The requirement is dropped, though approval must be had from Annie Besant.
Isabelle de Steiger (Alta Pero - A.P.) enters the H.O.G.D.
8 October - H.O.G.D. Temple No. 4 Osiris at Weston Super-Mare is founded by Benjamin Cox (Crux dat salutem - C.D.S.), a freemason, and associate of Westcott's from the days when he was a pharmacist. The Osiris temple never has more than 12 members, then goes into decline within two years, and ceases to exist in 1895 after Benjamin Cox dies.
11 October - Westcott (S.A.) makes a reference to the H.O.G.D. at a meeting of the Metropolitan College of the S.R.I.A. in which he refers to Woodford as a member.
19 October - H.O.G.D. Temple No. 5, Horus, at Bradford, chartered by T.H. Pattinson ( Vota vita mea - V.V.M.) a watchmaker at Baildon in Yorkshire.
Mathers' edition of Key of Solomon is published.
Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn:
February - 60 members join Temple No. 3, Isis-Urania before this date. Isis-Urania meets at Mark Masons' Hall
9 February - First public reference to the H.O.G.D. appears in Notes and Queries, in the Theosophical Society Periodical Lucifer. The reference is in response to a letter asking about a "School of Qabalah" - It can be assumed that the letter was written by Westcott (S.A.), probably in response to a query he placed himself.
May - Dr. Edward Berridge (Resurgam) joins the H.O.G.D.
10 September - Moina Mathers (Vestigia) is listed as 5=6, a full year before any regular Second Order initiations will be performed.
Dion Fortune (Pseudonym of Violet M. Firth), the prominent British occultist and author, is born. She manifested some mediumistic abilities in her teens. She later became interested in psychoanalysis and studied the work of Freud, but came to prefer C. G. Jung's perspective. About 1919 she joined Rosicrucian Order of Alpha et Omega, and was initiated into its outer order, the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, by J. W. Brodie-Innes. He instructed her in various magic practices. Firth's pseudonym, "Dion Fortune," was derived from her period as a member of the Alpha et Omega. She took the motto Deo Non Fortuna (By God, not luck), and this was condensed to "Dion Fortune" when she began to write. In 1924 she founded the Community (later Fraternity) of the Inner Light and became a prolific occult writer.
In France, the Martinist Order organizes a Supreme Council of 12 members with Papus (Gerard Encausse) as President and Grand Master. Stanislas de Guata and Joseph Peledan are also Council members. Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn:
January - Annie Horniman (Fortiter et Rectitude - F.E.R.) joins the H.O.G.D.
7 March - William Butler Yeats (Daemon Est Deus Inversus - Demon) joins the H.O.G.D.
July - Florence Emery (later Florence Farr, after she divorced Edward Emery) (Sapientia Sapienti Dono Data - S.S.D.D.) joins the H.O.G.D.
August - J.W. Brodie-Innes (Sub Spe) joins the H.O.G.D. in London.
September - Percy Bullock (Levavi Oculos - L.O.) joins the H.O.G.D.
Helena Petrovna Blavatski (Helena Petrovna von Hahn), cofounder of the Theosophical Society, passes.
Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn:
William Robert Woodman passes.
January - Arthur Edward Waite "Sacrementum Regis - S.R." joins the H.O.G.D.
March - Mrs. Helen Rand (Vigilate) joins the H.O.G.D.
30 July - S.L. MacGregor Mathers visits Paris where he meets with a representative of the Contintental European secret alchemical society that had initiated Kenneth MacKenzie, who introduces himself as Frater Lux E Tenebris. In a letter, Mathers states "I have been in much communication with Frater Lux E Tenebris (L.E.T.)." From these "Secret Chiefs" Mathers receives the esoteric corpus and skeletal initiation rituals with which to create the Rosicrucian "Second Order" of the Golden Dawn, to be called the Order of the Rosae Rubeae et Aureae Crucis (R.R. et A.C.).
2 August - Florence Farr (S.S.D.D.) is initiated into the 5=6 (Adeptus Minor) Grade.
17 December - first Second Order Initiation for Annie Horniman (Fortiter et Recte - F.E.R). Horniman is going abroad, so her initiation is rushed. At this time, a distinction has to be made between those of "Nominal 5=6" grade who had completed the examinations and those who have formally entered the Second Order. The Second order vault was built at Thavies Inn, off Holborn Circus in rooms owned by the Sanitary Wood Wool Company, in which Westcott (S.A.) had an interest.
Francis George Irwin passes.
W. Wynn Wescott becomes Supreme Magus of the S.R.I.A. A story is circulated alleging that: "MacKenzie had early in his life been the tutor of Count Apponyi in Austria, where he was initiated into the Gold und Rosenkreutz Order (FA+RC) and given the IX degree. He was further given the authority to establish a Rosicrucian society in England, which he then communicated to Little." MacKenzie is listed as a Past Magus of the SRIA on a leaflet stating the aims of the society in 1892, signed by then Secretary General W.J. Ferguson. The attempt to posthumously frame MacKenzie as the founder of the society, and thus claim for the SRIA an affiliation deriving from the Fraternitas Aureae et Rosae Crucis in Germany, reaches new depths of depravity when even the original Society register is altered. MacKenzie's name originally stood as number 114. This is altered to 0. All of this occurs once Wescott becomes Supreme Magus of S.R.I.A. It appears that Wescott wishes to appropriate the Rosicrucian affiliation that MacKenzie had received from the Secret Chiefs and intended for the Golden Dawn, for the S.R.I.A. instead. This explains why Wescott attempts to cover up the true origins of the Cypher Manuscripts by attributing them to Fraulein Anna Sprengel rather than to Kenneth MacKenzie. Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn:
In introducing the Second Order, which he controlled, Mathers (S.R.M.D) effectively takes over the organization from Westcott (S.A.). Mathers becomes sole Chief within the Second Order, with Westcott remaining simply as Chief Adept in Anglia. During 1892 there are seven Adept Assemblies and one Adept Council.
Immediately following his introduction of the Golden Dawn's Rosicrucian Second Order, S.L. MacGregor Mathers moves to Paris together with his wife, Mina, in order to be in closer contact with his Rosicrucian teachers, the "Secret Chiefs."
During 1892, Miss Theresa Jane O'Connell (Cial agus neart - C.A.N.) is expelled. She had fallen out with Mina Mathers (Vestigia)
18 March - Westcott (S.A.) is unable to get a second room on the premises at Thavies Inn - the vault is too small, and in August the Second order moves to Clipstone Street.
22 March - Miss Pamela Carden (later Mrs. Pamela Bullock) (Shemebar) joins the H.O.G.D.
June - First Corpus Christi Ceremony. The most important Adept Assembly is the annual one held early in June, as near as possible to Corpus Christi. The Consecration Ceremony of the Vault of the Adepts, the Corpus Christi ceremony, is to be used for any new Vault and for each day of Corpus Christi. "The Chief Adept, clothed in a black robe of mourning and with the "chain of humility" hung round his neck, is bound to the Cross of Suffering and pledges himself 'for the due performance and fulfillment of the respective clauses of the Oath taken by each member on the Cross of Suffering at his admission to the Grade of Adeptus Minor.'" Howe says that Mathers (S.R.M.D.) found the consequences of taking this oath so unpleasant that he tried to foist it on to Westcott (S.A.), who did it for one year and said he would never do it again. Peck did it at Edinburgh.
12 July - Helen Rand (Vigilate) 5=6
August - Factionalism at Horus in Bradford, between Rosicrucians and Theosophists. Annie Horniman (F.E.R.) is sent as an "envoy" to check out the situation. According to Horniman, Oliver Firth (Volo) and F.D. Harrison (Quanti est Sapere - Q.E.S.), both Theosophists, are making trouble by acting disrespectfully about and during the rituals.
10 August - Decision made to move the Second Order Vault to Clipstone Street. 24-25 Clipstone St. is a dingy little thoroughfare running east from the middle of Great Portland St. "dirty, noisy, smelly and immoral, and many objected to it." 10s. weekly for two rooms. According to historian Ellic Howe, the Second Order's neighbors were "a hairdresser, dairyman, confectioner, two sculptors, cabinet-makers, French polishers a piano tuner, and the offices of the German Waiters' Society." The vault is illuminated by a battery powered electric lamp. There is a log in the Second Order Vault, in which anyone coming or going writes down the date, time, and their business.
14 August (Sunday) - Percy Bullock (Levavi Oculos - L.O.) is busy organizing the move from Thavies Inn during the week of the 14th-21st.
6 September - Mathers (S.R.M.D.) and Moina (Vestigia) are back in London on 6 September, remaining until 20 October. This is at least partially for the Equinox Ceremony.
20 September - W.A. Ayton (V.O.O.R.) is inducted into the Second Order. His wife, a nominal 5=6 is allowed to observe. This is the only known instance of a nominal 5=6 being allowed to observe.
October - Westcott (S.A.) visits two months later, and temporarily takes control as Imperator of the Horus Temple, after the Imperator temporarily resigns, to allow him to fix the problems there.
November - Dr. Henry Pullen Burry (Anima Pura Sit - A.P.S.) join the H.O.G.D.
14 December - Apparently, the ladies of the Second Order are using the Vault (or rather the Clipstone street rooms) as a social place in the afternoon. Westcott (S.A.) promgulates a rule which limited "lady students" access, and Florence Farr (Sapentia Sapienti dono data - S.S.D.D.) complains about it. Apparently the new rule is ignored.
26 July - F. G. Irwin, of the S.R.I.A. and of the Society of Eight, dies.
19 October - the Ananda Lodge of the Esoteric Section of the Theosophical Society is formed. Westcott (S.A.) was President, Percy Bullock (L.O.) the honorary secretary and F.L. Gardner - not yet a Golden Dawn member, was also an officer. Gardner may have met Westcott at this time.
Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn:
In this year, the Portal grade is first used - this is a "transition" ritual between nominal 5=6 and the Second Order Initiation. Everyone who becomes a full 5=6 in 1893 goes through the portal grade first, but there is not yet a rule that 9 months must pass, and the portal grade is usually followed by the 5=6 within a week or so.
During 1893 There are eight Adept Assemblies and four Adept Council meetings.
January - Yeats (Demon) takes 5=6
February - Mrs. J.W. Brodie-Innes (Sub Hoc Signo Vinces - S.H.S.V.) joins the H.O.G.D.
March - Mathers (S.R.M.D.) makes a trip to try and fix problems with Horus Temple in Bradford. The Bradfordians are still talking to Oliver Firth (Volo), and F.D. Harrison (Q.E.S.) Harrison later rises to a significant position within Annie Besant's Universal Co-Masonry, after the collapse of the Theosophy Society.
6 April - J.W. Brodie-Innes (Sub spe) is initiated 5=6.
20 June - Pamela Carden (later Pamela Bullock) (Shemebar) is initiated 5=6.
26 September, (Tuesday) - This was the last 5=6 admission until March 1894. At this point there were 36 full 5=6 members of the Second Order.
Autumn - By this time the 5=6 Adeptus Minor grade in the Second Order was divided into two sub-grades Zelator Adeptus Minor (Z.A.M) and Theoricus Adeptus Minor (Th.A.M.) There was discussion and some work on a 5=6 Practicus Adeptus Minor, but this was probably never worked before the Examination system beginning to founder in 1897. H.O.G.D. Second Order members begin to take various parts of the series of eight examinations for the senior 5=6 Grade of Th.A.M in autumn of 1893. There are no regular grades beyond 5=6, though Mathers (S.R.M.D.) and Moina (Vestigia) as well as Westcott represent themselves as 7=4 at various times.
Annie Horniman secretly provides money that enables Florence Farr to lease the Avenue Theatre, where she stages Yeats' one act play, The Land of Heart's Desire, as a curtain raiser for Dr. John Todhunter's The Comedy of Sighs. The latter was soon withdrawn and was replaced by G.B. Shaw's Arms and the Man.
By 1894, an H.O.G.D. rule enforces a delay in allowing Theosophical Society Esoteric Section members to join the H.O.G.D., because Annie Besant must first approve them, then the "Master" (a nonhuman entity) of the Esoteric Section would tell them to resign. This appears to have been a politically correct way for the Esoteric Section to interfere with the H.O.G.D. without forcing Besant to take direct responsibility.
During 1894 the Amoun-Ra Temple No. 6 is chartered at Edinburgh, under the leadership of J.W. Brodie-Innes (Sub spe). William Peck later incinerates the papers of the Temple in a panic in 1901, and many of the records are lost.
January 6 - Mathers founds the Ahathoor Temple No. 7 at 1 Avenue Duquesne in Paris. Mathers grants Annie Horniman (F.E.R.) the honor of serving as consecrating Adept at the inauguration of the new temple.
February - Allan Benett - (Iehi Aour) joins the H.O.G.D.
May 5 - Charles Rosher (Aequo Animo - A.A.) enters the H.O.G.D.
Horus Temple in Bradford petitions for direct control by Mathers to keep any "petticoat government" by Florence Farr (S.S.D.D.) from affecting them. This is a direct result of Gardner showing them the letter Florence Farr had sent him. "Common Sense and good fellowship" is held to be more important at Horus than H.O.G.D. Grades.
Dr. Robert W. Felkin (Finem Respice - Respice) joins the H.O.G.D.
14 March - Henry Pullen Burry (A.P.S.) takes 5=6.
20 March - Grederick Leigh Gardner (De Profundis Ad Lucem - D.P.A.L.) joins the H.O.G.D.
September - A. E. Waite (who is not yet a H.O.G.D. member) publishes an esoteric periodical called The Unknown World. In an article in September Dr. Edmund William Berridge (Resurgam) makes his infamous "Death of a Syncope" comment, in which he implies that betrayal of the Second Order of the H.O.G.D. might result in death, with a coroner's verdict of death of heart failure. Because Westcott is widely known to be a coroner, this can be read to suggest masonic complicity in murder, as well as the "irresistable current of hostile will" promised in the Neophyte Initation.
December - Mrs. J.W. Brodie-Innes (S.H.S.V.) is initiated into 5=6.
22 March - Allan Benett (Iehi Aour) in initiated onto 5=6.
23 March - Gerard Encausse - the French mystic "Papus" - is given an honorary initiation into Ahathoor Temple in Paris. He later resigns to head the Martinist Order in France.
12 July- George Cecil Jones (Volo Noscere - Volo) joins H.O.G.D.
October - Frederick Leigh Gardner (De Profundis ad Lucem - D.P.A.L.) (not to be confused with Gerald Gardner, the 20th century esotericist who founds Gardnerian Wicca) visits Mathers (S.R.M.D) in Paris Mrs. Helen Mary Rand (Vigilate) is staying there at the time.
November - Ananda Lodge of the Esoteric Section of the Theosophical Society is closed down.
December - Benjamin Cox (C.D.S.), Imperator of Osiris Temple at Weston-Super-Mare dies. The Temple is defunct. Cox was working on a 7=4 ritual when he died.
|09-08-2009, 12:26 AM||#27|
Join Date: Apr 2008
The stage is set
All the world's a stage,
And all the men and women merely players:
They have their exits and their entrances;
And one man in his time plays many parts,
His acts being seven ages. At first the infant,
Mewling and puking in the nurse's arms.
And then the whining school-boy, with his satchel
And shining morning face, creeping like snail
Unwillingly to school. And then the lover,
Sighing like furnace, with a woeful ballad
Made to his mistress' eyebrow. Then a soldier,
Full of strange oaths and bearded like the pard,
Jealous in honour, sudden and quick in quarrel,
Seeking the bubble reputation
Even in the cannon's mouth. And then the justice,
In fair round belly with good capon lined,
With eyes severe and beard of formal cut,
Full of wise saws and modern instances;
And so he plays his part. The sixth age shifts
Into the lean and slipper'd pantaloon,
With spectacles on nose and pouch on side,
His youthful hose, well saved, a world too wide
For his shrunk shank; and his big manly voice,
Turning again toward childish treble, pipes
And whistles in his sound. Last scene of all,
That ends this strange eventful history,
Is second childishness and mere oblivion,
Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans everything.
|11-08-2009, 08:35 PM||#28|
Join Date: Apr 2008
By 1896, the Golden Dawn has about 300 members. Of these, about 100 are in the Second Circle, and about 60 are active. 7=4 degrees are conferred on the Mathers' (S.R.M.D. and Vestigia) by representatives of the "Secret Chiefs" in Paris. The Secret Chiefs transmit to Mathers esoteric teachings of an erotic nature intended for the projected "Third Order" of the Golden Dawn, including teachings regarding Hermetic Inner Alchmey and Alchemical Theurgy (Magic).
All other Second Order members are 5=6. There are a growing number are Theoricus Adeptus Minor (Th.A.M.), and in 1896 "the Theorici" form the basis for a near rebellion against Mathers' rule of the Second Order.
January - Mathers (S.R.M.D) writes a stern letter reproving Annie Horniman (F.E.R.). It is unclear precisely what prompted this, however it is clear that in late December Horniman wrote a critical letter to Mathers. The issues are Dr. Berridge's (Resurgam) interest in the teachings of Thomas Lake Harris, which include sexual techniques and polyfidelity, as well as statements allegedly made by made by or attributed to Mathers (S.R.M.D.). about sexual activity on the elemental plane. The sexual values of Victorian England are clearly not ready for esoteric teachings regarding sacred sexuality. Mathers, having entrusted certain information from the Secret Chiefs to Berridge, although the latter was only a 5=6 provoke this crisis due to Berridge' indescretion.
January - Florence Farr (Sapienta Sapienti dono data - S.S.D.D.) reports that she has been contacted by the "Egyptian Adept," an ancient Egyptian Priest or Priestess who has made contact through a fragment of a mummy case. Through correspondence with Mathers' (S.R.M.D.) Farr establishes to his and her satisfaction that this adept is in fact a genuine 8=3. She is allowed to begin a small "work group" to contact and work with the Adept. This is the core of what will later become her "Sphere group."
2 January - Draft of a letter from Mrs. Helen Rand (Vigilate) and Westcott (S.R.M.D.) to Mathers, defending the action of some Senior Theorici who had opposed Dr. Berridge (Resurgam). The bone of contention seems to have been his sexual theories, and improper conduct toward Mrs. Rand.
8 January - Mathers (S.R.M.D.) writes to Annie Horniman (F.E.R.), in a letter that can be described as "somewhat condescending." Mathers mentions Mrs. A. J. Carden, (Amore), for whom for whatever reason he "recommended to elemental marriage" because of the "extreme danger of invoking an incubus instead of a fay, through want of self control." The details are unclear, however this letter makes it clear that Mathers expounded certain esoteric teachings regarding sexuality.
14 January - By this time the crisis is over temporarily, and Horniman (F.E.R.) seems to have accepted a rebuke from Mathers and a hurt chastening by Moina.
March - Annie Horniman (F.E.R) complains that Mathers had no time for the arrears of work at 62 Oakley Square, which is described as the "headquarters of the Second Order." Westcott was doing most of the work on grading examinations at this point, as well as most of the other paperwork in the organization. It is unclear what was located at the Oakley Square site - possibly a business office used by Westcott.
10 March (Wednesday) - The Mathers (S.R.M.D. and Vestigia) are back in London on a visit by this time, probably for the equinox ceremony. They are staying with Ada Waters (Recta Pete), and return to Paris on the 13th.
May - Isabelle de Steiger (A.P) 5=6
13 May (Wednesday) - The group assembled by Florence Farr (S.S.D.D.) to contact her "Egyptian Adept" makes its initial attempt. Farr, Allan Benett (Iehi Aour), Charles Rosher (Aequo Animo - A.A.), and F.L. Gardner (D.P.A.L.) invoke Mercury - Taphthartharath - the ritual is written by Benett.
June 4 - Mathers (S.R.M.D.) misses Corpus Christi because of politics, probably involvement with fringe Jacobite activities in Paris. Annie Hornimann (F.E.R.) takes this and Mathers' political involvement as an insult to herself and the order, and shortly thereafter cuts off the Mathers' allowance, which had been their principal income in the past three years.
July - A letter is sent to Mrs. Florence E. S. Kennedy (Volo), containing 13 charges against the Theorici - 11 were particular to Annie Horniman (F.E.R.)
22 August - M. Eugene Jacob (Ely Star) joins Ahathoor Temple No. 7 in Paris.
September - Annie Horniman (F.E.R.) resigns as Sub-Praemonstrator (instructor) of Isis-Urania, but plans to stay active within the Second Order. There is a general perception that by this time the Theorici are getting restless and threatening Mathers authority.
29 October - "Manifesto" issued. In this document, Mathers (S.R.M.D.) chastens the rebellious Theorici, and commands them to "submit" to his rule, swearing an "oath of allegiance" to the Second Order and to himself as Chief. Mathers repports that he is under terrible strain from receiving rituals of the Second Order from Secret Chiefs. He also cites constant strife with opposing Demonic forces which has caused terrible nervous prostration, and blood loss through his nose, mouth, ears, etc.
22 November - Annie Horniman (F.E.R.) submits to the Chief. She is in Florence, Italy, until the beginning of 1897
28 November - Mme Jenny Jacob (Gnothi Seauton) joins the H.O.G.D.
December - In November or December, Mathers negotiates unsuccessfully with George Redway's esoteric publishing house for advances and more money on his publication of a translation of The Sacred Magic of Abra-Melin the Mage, a manuscript from the French Libraire D'Arsenal. By December, Mathers has returned his advances from Redway, and stricken a new deal with H.O.G.D. member F. L. Gardner (D.P.A.L.) who offered financial backing for publication of the Abra-Melin book. The enterprise is not philanthropic - Gardner means to make a profit - but it alleviates Mathers' short term financial problems in the wake of Horniman's withdrawal of his allowance.
1 December, 1896 - Dr. Felkin (Respice) takes 5=6
3 December - The conflict between the prudishness of Annie Horniman and the sexual openness of Berridge sharpens. Mathers (S.R.M.D.), understanding the sexual nature of certain esoteric teachings of the Golden Dawn's projected "Third Order" expells Horniman from the H.O.G.D.
Shortly after this, Dr. Pullen Burry (Anima pura sit - A.P.S.) goes to Paris to see Mathers. Mathers defends his expulsion of the contentious Hornimann and his support of Berridge (Resurgam). He also mentions that he is annoyed at Westcott (S.A.), whom Mathers felt was usurping his authority.
19 December - Gardner (D.P.A.L.). is a sexually repressed individual who mistakenly believes that sexuality has no place in Western esotericism. Gardner is allied with Horniman against Berridge, who has secretly received instructions regarding esoteric sexuality from Mathers. Mathers (S.R.M.D.) defends his expulsion of Horniman (F.E.R.) to Gardner (D.P.A.L.). Over the next day or two, Gardner organizes a fairly humble petition to ask Mathers to reinstate Horniman. He receives 39 replies - 29 affirmative, 9 negative (including Allan Benett (Iehi Aour), Ada Waters (Recta Pete), and J.W. Brodie-Innes (Sub spe). R. W. Felkin (Finem respice) declines to make a decision one way or the other. The petition is never sent to Mathers, however, possibly because Gardner learned that Mathers would not accept it.
25 December - Annie Horniman (F.E.R.) writes William Peck (Veritas et Lux), a prestigious member of the Amoun-Ra Temple in Edinburg, and discloses information on her many loans to the Mathers over several years. This information is quickly made public within the Second Order.
Levi's Le Clef des Grandes Mystres is published.
Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn:
1897 sees the fallout of the first Rebellion within the Golden Dawn. Mathers (S.R.M.D.) retains a grip on control of the organization, but becomes increasingly paranoid and jealous of his prerogatives regarding his role within the order. By October of 1897, things look bleak for the order. One member comments that "my faith in the Chief is completely shaken" and said that "it seems hardly likely that the Order can go on much longer in the present unsatisfactory state of affairs." Nevertheless, under the leadership of Florence Farr, the order recovers, and remains fairly stable for nearly two years.
11 January - G. C. Jones (Volo) becomes a 5=6
18 January - Elain Simpson (Donorum Dei Dispensatio Fidelis - Fidelis) joins H.O.G.D.
January - The Mathers (S.R.M.D. and Vestigia) visit London at the end of the month in order to calm the Theorici. Westcott, who has up to this point only been Registrar, is made Vice-Imperator, giving him for the first time direct authority in the Second Order. His replacement of Percy Bullock (L.O.) seems to have been amicable.
17 March - Westcott (S.A.) has to resign as Vice-Imperator because some occult manuscripts carrying his address are left in a cab, and causing Wescott to receive official notice that a Coroner of the Crown could not be involved in magical activities. Apparently, something similar happened in 1889 which caused him to stop lecturing for the Esoteric Section of the Theosophical Society. Aleister Crowley (Perdurabo) later alleged that Mathers (S.R.M.D.) left the documents and this was rumored or suspected at the time. The truth of the matter remains unknown.
It seems almost certain that the removal of Westcott (S.A.) caused the collapse of the examination system. Florence Farr (S.S.D.D.) did not care to enforce Second Order examinations, and Mathers (S.R.M.D.) was far too far away and busy with other matters. Annie Horniman (F.E.R.) was also gone at this point. Westcott suggests in a letter to Gardner that Charles Rosher (A.A.) and Miss Ada Waters (Recta Pete) pick up the work he had been doing, but it is clear that no-one else had the time to devote to the order's minutiae that Westcott had taken.
1 April - Florence Farr (S.S.D.D.) is appointed Vice-Imperator of Isis-Urania, and made Chief Adept in Anglia. At the same time, the formation of secret groups is advised and legalized by Mathers (S.R.M.D.)
5 April - Mathers' (S.R.M.D.) loses the Abra Melin manuscripts in a railway carriage in France. He does not inform Gardner until May.
At this point, Florence Farr (S.S.D.D.) collects money for the Mathers. Ada Waters (Recta Pete) returns back from Paris with news of the Mathers extreme financial difficulties. Amoun-Ra sends Mathers all its extra funds.
1 May - Mathers (S.R.M.D.) travels to Scotland to deal with problems in Amoun-Ra. Mathers apparently briefly makes himself Imperator, in the same way that Westcott (S.A.) had briefly been Imperator of Horus during its difficulties. Mathers displaces Brodie-Innes (Sub Spe) to Praemonstrator, and Peck (V.E.L.) to Vice-Imperator. By late 1897, Peck was Imperator.
May 1897 - A Pamphlet on the teachings of Thomas Lake Harris is issued by "Respire" - generally understood to be Dr. Berridge (Resurgam). At one point the author describes how he worked magic against an opponent. There is every evidence to indicate that this was documentation of a magical attempt by Berridge to injure Annie Horniman (F.E.R.) and a version of the pamphlet with a derisive bit of doggerel which made the matter more clear was sent to a member.
9 May - Gardner (D.P.A.L.) finds out about Mathers' (S.R.M.D.) troubles, and makes an offer of money and lodging until Mathers completes his work. The terms require, however, a cessation of all political and reinstatement of Annie Horniman (F.E.R.). The offer is genuinely rude in nature. Mathers refuses indignantly, yet remains fairly kind to Gardner.
May - Subsequently, Gardner (D.P.A.L.) complains again to Mathers (S.R.M.D.) about Berridge (Resurgam), and writes to the latter saying that Berridge will likely hear from Horniman's lawyers. By this time the fight between Berridge and Horniman has become very bitter indeed. Based on the poem, Mathers suspends Berridge for six months.
2 July - Mathers (S.R.M.D.) finally dispatches the Abra-melon Manuscript to Gardner (D.P.A.L.).
July - At some point during this period, Mathers (S.R.M.D.) mentions fear of assassination, which Florence Farr (S.S.D.D.) privately derides.
August - Westcott (S.A.) has an "astral visitor," "known to him" who advises Wescott he should not work with Annie Horniman (F.E.R.) or any other sorores. From this point on Westcott no longer works with any of the women of the order in private. Wescott was already out of all public involvement.
15 August - With Berridge's (Resurgam) suspension almost up, Gardner (D.P.A.L.) writes him a strongly worded, possibly threatening letter.
17 August - Mathers (S.R.M.D.) criticizes Gardner (D.P.A.L.) for his rebuke of Berridge (Resurgam), and even Florence Farr (S.S.D.D.) thinks Gardner was out of line. Gardner's behavior seems be becoming more and more erratic, which Mathers attributes to his possession of the Abra-Melin manuscripts.
22 August - Florence Farr (S.S.D.D.) writes a humiliating letter to Gardner (D.P.A.L.), in which she says she can not recommend him for further official position in Isis-Urania.
August - Early in August Gardner (D.P.A.L.) writes an angry letter to the member whose function was to circulate notices of meetings, because she had failed to invite him to the August 7 ceremony. She takes exception to his tone and complains to Florence Farr (S.S.D.D).
8 September - Gardner (D.P.A.L.) resigns from Isis-Urania and sends a notice for Dr. Pullen-Burry (A.P.S.) to read at the equinox ceremony. Gardner complains bitterly and wrote a condemning letter to Pullen-Burry because the latter fails to read Gardner's letter before the assembly.
9 September - The Second order moves to new premises at 36 Blythe Road, off Hammersmith Road. Gardner had presented a book case, and agrees to leave it until after the ceremony, though he refuses to let the order buy it from him.
November - Despite factionalization, Amoun-Ra was still in business at this point, and was building its own Second Order vault. Isabelle De Steiger (Alta Peto) painted the Vault at Edinburgh.
Julius Evola is born.
Aleister Crowley joins the Golden Dawn.
Mathers publishes "The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abra-Melin the Mage."
Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn:
We know comparatively little of 1898. A survey of available information would seem to indicate that the year was "slow." On the other hand, there is also a lack of documentation. The extensive knowledge of the order in 1896-97 is partially because of correspondence from Annie Horniman and F. L. Gardner, both of whom moved away from the organization (Annie suspended, and Gardner a corresponding member of Horus Temple feuding with Florence Farr). On the whole, 1898 seems to have been a milder year for the order. Letters indicate that Florence Farr was an effective "cushion" between the Theorici, and Mathers' high-handedness, and that the Chief himself was deeply enmeshed in the Isis Movement he hoped to inaugurate in Paris. When Mathers' attention was focused on the order, it was on the feuding Amoun-Ra Temple in Edinburgh, which by late 1899 seems to have almost entirely collapsed. The storm that would destroy the order in Jan-May of 1900 broke rather suddenly, after a time of seeming peace. Without doubt, however, there were deep tensions within the order. February - Horus Temple Bradford petitions for direct control by Mathers to keep any "petticoat government" by Florence Farr (S.S.D.D.) from affecting them. This was a direct result of Gardner showing them the letter Florence Farr had sent him. "Common Sense and good fellowship" was held to be more important at Horus than H.O.G.D. Grades.
February - Eugene Jacob (Ely Star) takes 5=6 at Ahathoor
29 July - Westcott (S.A.) went to Edinburgh 29 July 1898. By this point, Amoun-Ra Temple is apparently in complete collapse. The Temple is divided between followers of Brodie-Innes (Sub Spe), and followers of Peck (L.E.R.), who support Mathers (S.R.M.D.) - a total of about fifteen on each side. In a private letter, Westcott suggests that "All the scotch have reckoned him (Mathers) up correctly but a few seniors are doing like one in London (probably meant to be Florence Farr) tolerating a master in hope of further profit." Mathers was apparently quite unpopular, and Brodie-Innes section of the Amoun-Ra Temple can be viewed as being in more or less open rebellion at this point. Westcott says that Peck's faction already has some defections and resignations.
22 September - Camille Videgrain (Sursum Corda - S.C.) joins Ahathoor in Paris.
18 November - Aleister Crowley (Perdurabo) is initiated.
C.G. Leland publishes "Aradia, the Gospel of the Witches."
Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn:
March - The Mathers' "Rite of Isis" presented at Bodiniere Theatre in the Rue Saint-Lazare in March 1899. This was part of an ongoing esoteric project of the Mathers' which did not directly relate to the Golden Dawn. Though couched as a historical project, the idea was to expose the public to the old Graeco-Roman mystery cult of Isis, and revive Isis worship in Paris. This would lead to Mathers' crowning public achievement, the presentation of a reconstructed Isis Temple at the 1900 Paris World's Fair.
3 March - A. E. Waite (S.R.) takes 5=6
18 March - Elaine Simpson (Fidelis) takes 5=6
May - Crowley (Perdurabo) becomes 4=7. He completes examination, and is qualified as a nominal 5=6, but is refused initiation into the Second Order.
August - Crowley goes into a "magical retreat" at Boleskine in Scotland, to attempt to work Mathers' Abra-Melin process.
November - Dawning homosexual scandal. There appears to have been police investigation of some homosexual conduct at Cambridge, and Crowley's name was proposed in reference to it, along with some of his H.O.G.D. associates, including Allan Bennett. No charges are filed, and no H.O.G.D. members are actively questioned by the police, though some of them may have been watched. This is overshadowed by further rumors; of a sexual affair with Elaine Simpson (Fidelis), the daughter of Mrs. Alice Simpson (Perseverantia et Cura Quies - Preserverantia).
|23-08-2009, 08:46 PM||#29|
Join Date: Apr 2008
January 16 - Crowley goes to Paris and is initiated into the Second Order by Mathers. Upon his return to the London temple, he requested the grade papers to which he was now entitled from Miss Cracknell, the acting secretary. To the London Adepts, this was the last straw. The London Adepts refuse to acknowledge Crowley's initiation.
January - Florence Farr, already of the opinion that the London temple should be closed, wrote to Mathers expressing her wish to resign as his representative, though she was willing to carry on until a successor was found.
February 16 - Mathers replies to this on February 16th, accusing Farr or attempting to bring back Wescott as the head of the order. Consequently, Mathers reveals to Farr that the letters from Fraulein Sprengel had been forged by Westcott. This bombshell shakes the trust of the London members. The crisis is exasperated by Westcott's refusal to give any explanation or even defend himself against Mathers's accusations.
March 3 - The Adepts in London elect a committee of seven and request a full investigation of the matter.
March 23 - Mathers replies, declining to provide proof, refusing even to acknowledge the committee, and dismissing Farr as his representative.
March 29 - A general meeting is called in London. The committee of rogue Adepts remove Mathers as chief and expels him from the Order. It also expells Mina Mathers and Crowley.
April - Mathers annuls the Second Order committee and sends Crowley to London as his emissary in order to take possession of Second Order's private rooms and implements. This plan was foiled by the diligence of W.B. Yeats and certain other rogue Adepts.
In the ensuing confusion, Yeats takes control, becoming Imperator of Isis-Urania Temple. The committee attempts to restructure the Order along more democratic lines, resulting in even greater confusion. Annie Horniman is reinstated into the Order. Horniman, however, begins to argue with nearly everyone in the Order.
Yeats tries to maintain peace for a while, but finally resigns from office in February.
Two con-artists calling themselves Mr. and Mrs. Horos somehow manage to convince MacGregor Mathers that Madame is actually the real Anna Sprengel. Mathers is fooled for awhile, but when he begins to get suspicious, the couple steal copies of Golden Dawn's rituals and flee to London. Once in London the Horos couple set up their own personal Order-The Order of Theocractic Unity which-unknown to its members-features fraud, extortion, and sex. Mr. Horos is eventually arrested for rape. When charged by the authorities, the Horos couple claim to be the leaders of the Golden Dawn. The result was that many of the most arcane secrets of the Order were made public. Excerpts from initiation rituals of the Golden Dawn are printed in London newspapers. The resulting scandal causes further deep division in the order.
The original Order further to splits apart. The Golden Dawn changes its name to the Hermetic Society of the Morgenrothe and Florence Farr resigns from the Order.
Horus Temple at Bradford gradually pulls away from H.O.G.D. teachings. Eventually turns from H.O.G.D. to S.R.I.A. ideals, and accepts only Master Masons.
The remnants of the original Order are ravaged by further schism among the rogue Adepts. Some among them feel that the Golden Dawn should no longer be magically oriented. This faction, including Blackden, Rev. Ayton, and the more mystically-inclined members, forms Independent and Rectified Rite of the Golden Dawn under the leadership of A.E. Waite. Brodie-Innes, Felkin, and the magically inclined members form the Stella Matutina.
In Paris, S.L. MacGregor Mathers founds the Rosicrucian Order of Alpha et Omega (also called the Alpha et Omega or A.O) as a superstructure for the "three order" system originally planned for the higher grades of the Golden Dawn, with the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn as its outer of first order and the Rosae Rubeae et Aureae Crucis (R.R. et A.C.) as its Second Order, thus distinguishing itself from the dissident branches of the order. Adepts and Temples remaining loyal to Mathers and the "Secret Chiefs" flock to the Alpha et Omega.
The Druid Order, also known as the Ancient Druid Order (A.D.O.) or An Druidh Uileach Braitheachas (A.D.U.B.) is founded in England. Its leading light is George Watson MacGregor Reid, who was Chosen Chief from 1909 to 1946. George Watson MacGregor-Reid was additionally closely associated with S.L. MacGregor Mathers of the Hermetic Order of the Golden and of the Alpha et Omega. Reid gave Mathers the Arch-druid degree, conferring on Mathers a right and authority to officiate at celebrations of Druid rituals; thus, for example, Mathers officiated at some Druid rituals in Nantes, France, in 1909. Additionally, Mathers gave Reid the title of MacGregor (which was inherited by his son), and also the Alpha et Omega 7=4 to Reid in return for the Arch-Druid conferral. Thus, Reid obtained an authority enabling him to officate at G.D. ceremonies. Golden Dawn and Alpha et Omega rituals were secretly worked side by side with Druidic rites in the so-called, Nauda temple. MacGregor-Reid's rights in both Druidry and the G.D. were transmitted to his heirs and successors, which included his son (MacGregor Reid) and Desmond Bourke. (Adam Stout made a thorough study of MacGregor Reid, and suggested that the conferral of the "MacGregor" title from Mathers, which was given only to three other individuals, all Golden Dawn or Alpha et Omega initiates, was tantamount to a mystical transmission).
Henry Steel Olcott, cofounder of the Theosophical Society, passes.
Francis Israel Regardie is born in England but emigrates to the United States with his family at age 13. Ritual magician, student of Aleister Crowley, and later a chiropractor who utilizes the thought of Wilhelm Reich in his work. Beginning in 1928 he travels through Europe as Crowley's lover, secretary and student. In 1934, after parting with Crowley, he joined the Stella Matutina, an offshoot of the former Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Regardie breaks his vows of secrecy, and publishes the order's rituals and magical teachings in 1937. Despite his rationalizations, this act nearly destroys the both the Stella Matutina and the Alpha et Omega.
William Alexander Ayton passes.
Franz Bardon is born.
Aleister Crowley begins to publish Golden Dawn rituals and teachings in The Equinox, leading Mathers to eventually sue him for copyright infringement in a suit which Mathers loses.
Madeline Montalban (aka Dolores North) is born. Montalban eventually founds the Order of the Morning Star (Ordo Stella Matutina) in 1945, which practices Angelic magic and the magic of the Tarot.
Countess Tamara Bourkoun (ca 1911-1990) is born. Bourkoun eventually founds a derivative order of the original Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn called Order of the Pyramid and the Sphinx. The O.P.+S. practices Alpha et Omega ritual and works Enochian magic, and has numerous connections with the Golden Dawn and its derivative orders. The cousin of the Cancellarius of the Alpha et Omega under Moina Mathers, Langford Garstin, also named Garstin, becomes a member of the Order of the Pyramid and the Sphinx. Ithell Colquhoun is also an initiate of the O.P.+S. Helen Rand, former Cancellaria gives the pillars of the Isis-Urania temple to Countess Bourkoun for use in the rituals of the O.P.+S. Miss Tranchell-Hayes, Imperatrix of Mathers' Alpha et Omega eventually transmits the lineal affiliation and authorities of the Alpha et Omega to Bourkoun. It is largely due to the efforts of Countess Bourkoun and Marquis Nicholas Tereschenko that Mathers' Alpha et Omega survives into the 21st Century. Bourkoun also becomes an active Gnostic; is ordained as a Sub-Deaconess of L'Eglise Universelle de la Nouvelle Alliance' by Roger Caro in 1973, made a Deaconess by H.L. Jacques Lacroix in 1975, and ordained a priest by Jean-Paul Charlet in 1977. Bourkoun was the official representative in Great Britain of the 'L'Eglise Universelle de la Nouvelle Alliance," directed by Roger Caro who was also the Imperator of the Freres Ainees de la Rose+Croix (F.A.R.+C., Elder Brothers of the Rose Cross).
Alpha et Omega 2 (temple) is formed in Edinburgh as a daughter temple to Amen-Ra. Brodie-Innes its chief, (after having made peace with Mathers and broken off with Felkin). Felkin establishes Smaragdum Thalasses Temple of the Stella Matutina in Havelock North, New Zealand. The Order in New Zealand became known by the Maori name of Whare Ra or "The House of the Sun."
Amen-Ra sires a spin-off hybrid called Cromlech Temple or the Solar Order-a collaboration between Alpha et Omega 2 and Anglican clergymen.
Brodie-Innes establishes an A.O. temple in London as a southern branch of his revived Amen-Ra Temple in Edinburgh.
Papus (i.e. G.A.V. Encausse), French occultist and author passes. A.E. Waite's Independent and Rectified Rite of the Golden Dawn becomes the Fellowship of the Rosy Cross.
Felkin establishes the following temples of the Stella Matutina: Hermes Lodge in Bristol, The Secret College in London (open only to SRIA members), and Merlin Lodge in London. Felkin establishes another Order, the Guild of St. Raphael - a guild of the Anglican Church.
Florence Farr passes.
Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers passes.
Desmond Bourke is born. Bourke eventually becomes a key player in nearly every field of British esotericism. Bourke becomes a 7=4 of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, an VIII Degree of A. E. Waite's Fellowship of the Rosy Cross, an Adeptus Maximus of Madelain Montalban's Order of the Morning Star, an Arch Druid of numerous Druidic Orders, a High Grade Freemason, IX degree of Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, a Martinist (Supérieur Inconnu), Reaux-Crois, and Chief of the Sovereign Imperium of the Mysteries. Bourke also becomes a Gnostic Bishop (multiple affiliations), founds the Hermetic Martinist Order, and guides the merger of the Ancient and Archaological Order of Druids with the Literary and Archaological Order of Druids to form the Universal Druidic Order. Bourke, who eventually holds numerous Golden Dawn and derivative affiliations, serves in the 1980's as Praemonstrator of the Serapis temple of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn in London, England. November - Paul Foster Case is initiated into the 0=0 grade at Thoth-Hermes Temple No. 9 in New York.
Moina Mathers returns to London after S.L. MacGregor Mathers' death and establishes the Alpha et Omega 3 temple
Dion Fortune joins Brodie-Innes' A.O. temple in London.
The Alpha et Omega establishes Ptah Temple No. 10 in Philadelphia.
Marquis Nicolas Tereshenko is born. Tereschenko's family was raised to nobility in the Ukraine by the former Czar of Russia. Marquis Tereschenko becomes a High Grade Freemason, an Adeptus Maximus of Madeline Montalban's Order of the Morning Star, an Arch Druid (United Ancient Order of Druids), Martinist, Reaux Croix, and Praemonstrator of the Ahathoor Temple No. 7 in Paris, France. Together with Countess Tamara Bourkoun, Marquis Tereschenko bears primarily responsibility for the survival of S.L. MacGregor Mathers' Rosicrucian Order of Alpha et Omega into the 21st Century in Europe.
The Alpha et Omega establishes Atoum Temple No. 20 in Los Angeles.
The Amoun Temple of the Stella Matutina in London is closed down due to the paranoid behavior of its chief (Mrs. Stoddart).
In January Moina expels Paul Foster Case from the Golden Dawn. Case goes on to create his own Order, the Builders of the Adytum (B.O.T.A.)
Dion Fortune leaves the Alpha et Omega Lodge to form the Fraternity of the Inner Light. (Spin-off groups from the Fraternity of the Inner Light eventually include The Guild of the Master Jesus (London - 1925), Helios (Gareth Knight -Toddington -1956), the Enochian Temple (London 1969), and the Servants of the Light (W.E. Butler).]
Allan Bennett passes.
The Stella Matutina is close to collapse. W.B. Yeats resigns.
William W. Wescott passes.
Rudolph Steiner passes.
R.W. Felkin, founder of the Stella Matutina, passes.
Moina Mathers passes.
Frederick Leigh Gardner passes.
Annie Besant (née Wood), author and noted Theosophist passes.
Israel Regardie is initiated into the Hermes Temple of the Stella Matutina in Bristol.
Annie Horniman passes.
Israel Regardie begins to publish the Order's teachings as The Golden Dawn in violation of his oaths of secrecy. This decision nearly destroys what is left of both the Stella Matutina and the Rosicrucian Order of Alpha et Omega.
William Butler Yeats passes.
Most temples of the Alpha et Omega and the Stella Matutina become dormant (with the exception of the Hermes Temple in Bristol which works sporadically until 1970 and the Whare Ra temple in New Zealand which lasts into the 1970's.
Arthur Edward Waite passes.
The Order of the Morning Star (Ordo Stella Matutina) is founded by Madeline Montalban. The Order of the Morning Star practices a system which mainly focuses on Hermetic/Qabalistic and Angelic magic and the magic of the Tarot. The order consists of two exclusive circles, one for Angelic magic and the other for the magic of the Tarot, which are strictly limited to twelve members each. Prominent members of the Order of the Morning Star are Ukrainian nobleman, Marquis Nicholas Tereschenko (Praemonstrator of the Ahathoor Temple No 7 of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn in Paris and Second Adept of Mathers' Alpha et Omega in France) and famous Druid and Martinist, Desmond Bourke (Praemonstrator of the Serapis Temple of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn in London), who each receive and eventually transmit the Ordo Stella Matutina affiliation.
|23-10-2009, 10:10 PM||#30|
Join Date: Apr 2008
Dion Fortune (i.e. Violet Mary Firth) passes.
Aleister Crowley (Crowley, Edward Alexander) passes.
Robert Word, Ph.D. (I.O.P and Sar Draconis) is born. Dr Word (with a Ph.D. in nuclear physics) eventually founds and becomes the Chief Adept of the August Order of the Mystic Rose, which eventually formally affiliates with the European headquartered, Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn.® Dr. Word also becomes a Board Member of the H.P. Blavatsky's Theosophical Society, a High Grade Freemason (and member of its Grand College of Rites), VII degree, S.R.I.C.F. (the only legitimate Societas Rosicruciana in the USA), 95th Degree, Memphis and Mizraim Egyptian Rite of Freemasonry, an Arch Druid (United Ancient Order of Druids), a Gnostic Bishop with multiple affiliations, an initiate of the F.A.R.+C., an Initiate of the Rose Croix d'Orient, a Martinist (Supérieur Inconnu), and a Reax-Croix.
Jean Pascal Ruggiu is born. Ruggiu (Lux Aurorae) eventually becomes Cancellarius Ordinis of the European headquartered, Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn®, Third Adept of the Golden Dawn's Second Order, the R.R. et A.C.®, and Third Adept of S.L. MacGregor Mathers' Rosicrucian Order of Alpha et Omega®, which serves as a superstructure for the Golden Dawn's aforementioned First and Second Orders. Ruggiu also becomes Imperator of the Ahathoor Temple No. 7 in Paris, founded by Mathers in 1892 and reawakened 100 years later in 1992 by Marquis Nicholas Tereschenko. Ruggiu becomes a High Grade Freemason (95th degree, Memphis and Mizraim Egyptian Rite of Freemasonry), a Gnostic Bishop (holding multiple lines of affiliation), Imperator of the F.A.R.+C., a Martinist (Supérieur Inconnu), a Reax-Croix, and an initiate of several Continental European secret societies whose names remain secret.
Elsa Barker passes.
Paul Foster Case passes.
David John Griffin is born. Griffin (Lux ex Septentrionis) eventually becomes fluent in French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Dutch, German, and Swedish and one day becomes Imperator Ordinis of the European head quartered, Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn®, Chief Adept of the Golden Dawn's Second Order, the R.R. et A.C.®, and Archon Basileaus of S.L. MacGregor Mathers' Rosicrucian Order of Alpha et Omega®, which serves as a superstructure for the Golden Dawn's aforementioned First and Second orders. Griffin also becomes a high grade Freemason (IX Degree in the Swedish Rite, 32 Degree in the A.A.S.R., Knight Templar in the York Right, a member of the N.C.R.L. and C.F. Eckleff Research Lodges, and member of the S.R.I.C.F., the only legitimate branch of Societas Rosicruciana in the U.S.A), a Gnostic Bishop (holding multiple lines of affiliation), an initiate of the Gold und Rosenkreutz Order, of the Fratres Lucis (Asiatic Brethren), of the F.A.R.+C., and of several other Continental European secret societies whose names remain secret.
Jorge Hevia, A.B., M.B.A., J,D., L.L.M., Esq, is born. Hevia (Deus est Daemon Inversus) eventually becomes Praemonstrator Ordinis of the European headquartered, Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn®, Second Adept of the Golden Dawn's Second Order, the R.R. et A.C.®, and Second Adept of S.L. MacGregor Mathers' Rosicrucian Order of Alpha et Omega®, which serves as a superstructure for the Golden Dawn's aforementioned First and Second Orders. A keen attorney as well as skilled occultist, Hevia on numerous occasions successfully protects the legal rights of the European headquartered, Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn®, its Second Order, the Rosae Rubeae et Aureae Crucis (R.R. et A.C.) as well as its three order superstructure, the Rosicrucian Order of Alpha et Omega® (A.O.) from infringement and outside legal threat.
Franz Bardon passes.
|24-10-2009, 12:52 AM||#31|
Join Date: Apr 2008
The Ancient and Archeological Order of Druids is merges with the Literary and Archaological Order of Druids to form the Universal Druidic Order, the new organization to be based in Blackheath, London. This merger occurs under the guiding hand of Desmond Bourke, head of the Ancient and Archeaological Order, who subsequently becomes head of the Universal Druidic Order. The intimate association between the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn and Druidry that began with the mutual initiations of S.L. MacGregor Mathers and George Watson MacGregor Reid, continues and deepens under the leadership of Arch Druid and Golden Dawn Adept, Desmond Bourke.
Julius Evola passes.
The Hermetic Martinist Order is founded in the United Kingdom by Desmond Bourke, a member of 'L'Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique' of England. The H.O.M is chartered by the O.M. & S of Louis Bentin (Sar Gulion) Grand Master of the Britannic Grand Lodge. The Hermetic Order of Martinists is accessible only to Fratres of the 'Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia' (S.R.I.A., founded in 1867 by Robert Wentworth Little) and is thus composed exclusively of Rosicrucian Masons and does not initiate women. Their teachings are taken from 'L'Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique'. The current Grand Master is Andrew Stephenson (Sar Benevolent). The membership is about 160 members with Heptads and Lodges situated around England. The majority of known English Martinists carry a lineage descending from Victor Blanchard (L'Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique).
Jean-Pascal Ruggiu is initiated in London into a derivative order of the original Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, the Order of the Pyramid and the Sphinx, by Countess Tamara Bourkoun. Countess Bourkoun authorizes Ruggiu to found temples of the Alpha et Omega in France. Ruggiu founds the first temple in Strasbourg.
Israel Regardie, without proper initiatic authority to do so, irregularly consecrates a Vault of the Adepti and initiates Cris Monnastre into the Adeptus Minor (5=6) Grade. Monnastre founds the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn in the U.S.A.
Madeline Montalban passes.
Israel Regardie passes.
Countess Tamara Bourkoun passes.
Marquis Nicholas Tereschenko and Jean Pascal Ruggiu travel to London, where they are advanced through the Grade of Adeptus Exemptus, 7=4, at the Serapis Temple, of which Apollon Leontas serves as Imperator and Desmond Bourke is Praemonstrator. Dr. Robert Word is in attendance. Charters are issued transmitting multiple lines lineal affiliation, including numerous Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn derivative orders. Returning from England, Marquis Tereschenko and Ruggiu resurrect and reconsecrate the Ahathoor Temple No. 7 in France, exactly 100 years after it was originally founded by S.L. MacGregor Mathers in 1892.
Cris Monnastre regularly initiates and advances David Griffin into each of the Grades of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn at the Alpha et Omega II temple in Los Angeles, then into the Portal and Adeptus Minor grades of the R.R. et A.C.
IN Memory of Louise Jensen-Lest We Forget... http://www.davidicke.com/forum/showp...&postcount=633
Last edited by lightgiver; 24-10-2009 at 12:53 AM.
|24-10-2009, 01:09 AM||#32|
Join Date: Oct 2007
Very good and informative thread LG
It isn't Zionism it IS Rothschilds Zionism.
Originally Posted by bendoon
The white race is the only race that isn't racist.Originally Posted by bendoonall the most intelligent people in history have been racist .
|24-10-2009, 07:05 PM||#34|
Join Date: Apr 2008
|24-10-2009, 07:20 PM||#35|
Join Date: Nov 2008
This retirement, following so soon after the death of Bob Rowland had an unsettling effect upon a number of other UGLE related esoteric Orders, including the SRIA, but nonetheless the posting is a good one.
The Grand Lodge of All England has no connection with any other body, Masonic or non-Masonic unless supported by a written Treaty or Agreement ratified by a Convocation of The Grand Lodge of All England. grandsecretary speaks on behalf of The Grand Lodge of All England. He does not represent the policies or views of ANY other Masonic organisation.
Last edited by grandsecretary; 24-10-2009 at 07:25 PM.
|24-10-2009, 07:50 PM||#36|
Join Date: Sep 2009
Last edited by kadosh; 24-10-2009 at 07:52 PM.
|24-10-2009, 07:52 PM||#37|
Join Date: Apr 2008
An agreement is reached between the two parties agreeing to share the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn® trademark internationally in an equal basis.
Due to the publication of the rituals and teachings of the original Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (H.O.G.D.) by Aleister Crowley and Israel Regardie, a host of groups arise on the internet creating public confusion by calling themselves "Golden Dawn," yet offering their students little or nothing more than the aforementioned published material. Certain of these groups replace physical initiation in real temples with the dubious practices of so-called, "self" or "astral" initiation. Others dilute original H.O.G.D. teachings by mixing them with outside traditions like Martinism or Thelema. The worst of these groups, Robert Zink's so-called, "Esoteric Order of the Golden Dawn," engages in cult-like practices and introduced dangerous, non-traditional practices like blood sacrifice, and the ritual scarring and flogging of candidates. Zink's "E.O.G.D." nonetheless preys on an unsuspecting public by improperly marketing itself as "Faithful to the classical traditional Golden Dawn tradition" and even as "Guardians of the True Golden Dawn.
Cris Monnastre retires from the Golden Dawn, withdrawing from her partnership with Griffin, and leaving Griffin in charge of the order.
January - David Griffin is advanced through the 7=4 Grade of the Golden Dawn's Second Order (R.R. et A.C.) at the Ahathoor Temple No. 7 in Paris. Multiple lines of lineal affiliation deriving from the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn and derivative orders are transmitted to Griffin, who is additionally consecrated as a Gnostic bishop. Griffin takes the initiatic name of Frater Lux Ex Septentrionis. Griffin's Golden Dawn order (formally Monnastre/Griffin's) is merged into the Paris headquartered H.O.G.D. presided over by Marquis Nicholas Tereschenko and Jean-Pascal Ruggiu, with Tereschenko, Ruggiu, and Griffin as its international Chiefs.
March - Griffin's "Ritual Magic Manual" is released by Golden Dawn publishing, making the magical system of the R.R. et A.C. more readily available to practicing magicians in a user friendly format.
Vernal Equinox - The European headquartered, H.O.G.D. decides to further differentiate itself from the host of groups calling themselves "Golden Dawn, yet having no legitimate connection to the original Golden Dawn and offering their students little or nothing more than the material published by Israel Regardie. Their Second Order, the R.R. et A.C., therefore proclaims the "Reformatio Fraternitatis Anno 1999," according to an ancient rule of the Rosicrucian fraternity, which requires a general reformation of the fraternity every one hundred and eleven (111) years. The previous general reformations had occurred in 1888 (year of the founding of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn as well as of two other Rosicrucian orders in France), 1777 (the year of the general reformation of the Gold und Rosenkreutz order in Germany), 1666, etc. In the 1999 reformation, the R.R. et A.C. moves all published material to its outer order, the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Next, using pre-Golden Dawn Hermetic and Rosicrucian esoteric transmissions, the R.R. et A.C. prepares a completely traditional (yet secret and unprofaned) magical and alchemical curriculum to replace the material profaned through publication by Regardie and Crowley.
In this manner the European headquartered H.O.G.D. distinguishes itself from the host of groups contemporaneously calling themselves Golden Dawn, yet offering little or nothing in their Second Orders beyond well-known, published material. Moreover, inclusion of Hermetic alchemy in the reformed R.R. et A.C. curriculum further distinguishes it as the only extant Rosicrucian Order teaching and practicing all three disciplines of the "Trivium Hermeticum": astrology, theurgy, and alchemy.
Marquis Nicholas Tereschenko passes.
E.O.G.D. (Esoteric Order of the "Golden Dawn")cult leader, Robert Zink, is exposed as having sexually abused and impregnated the under aged child of a female E.O.G.D. member. Zink denies this, but the bereaved grandmother publishes the birth certificate as proof.
Leaders of the European based, Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn are contacted by and again meet with representatives of the same order referred to by Mathers as the "Secret Chiefs" in Paris once again. At this meeting, Golden Dawn leaders are given everything for the "Third Order" that had been planned by them for the Golden Dawn since its inception in 1888. These materials include the initiation rituals for the Golden Dawn's three highest grades (called "Magisteria"); Magister Templi (8-3), Magus (9=2) and Ipsissimus (10=1). Golden Dawn leaders are additionally given the complete curriculum of these higher grades; a vast esoteric corpus that includes not only the elementary sexual practices of Hermetic Inner Alchemy and Alchemical Magic once given to Mathers for the first Magisterium (Magister Templi), of the Golden Dawn's projected Third Order, but also the continuation and culmination of these teachings for the second and third Magisteria (Magus and Ipsissimus).
Hermetic "Inner" Alchemy represents the capstone on the pyramid and comprises the highest teachings of the Western esoteric tradition. This alchemical practice uses the subtle fires of the body, including love and sexuality, to transmute the "lead" of the physical body (or "Prima Materia") into the "gold" of a solar body, into which the Adept projects his or her consciousness at the moment of death, thus becoming consciously immortal.
David Griffin (G.H. Frater Lux Ex Septentrionis) and Jean-Pascal Ruggiu (G.H. Frater Lux Aurore) are initiated into the First Mageristeriun, 8=3, and are further chartered, granted the original Hermetic and Rosicrucian lineal affiliations previously transmitted to Kenneth MacKenzie, with which the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn was originally founded in 1888.
This fully distinguishes the European headquartered, Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn® from the modern, Regardie-based "Golden Dawn" groups that "dead end" with the material published by Israel Regardie and Aleister Crowley, as the only order ever to teach and initiate in the entire "three order" system planned for the Golden Dawn since its inception in 1888, from the Neophyte (0=0) through the Ipsissimus (10=1) grades. To further distinguish themselves from the Regardie-based groups, although their First Order remains the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn.® (H.O.G.D.), and their Second Order the Rosae Rubeae et Aureae Crucis® (R.R. et A.C.), they additionally adopt the name given by Mathers to the superstructure of the entire three order system, the Rosicrucian Order of Alpha et Omega® (also called the Alpha et Omega or A.O).
Following the public announcement of the European headquartered Golden Dawn having received the Third Order initiation rituals and curriculum from the "Secret Chiefs" in Paris, Griffin is once more subjected to an orchestrated defamation campaign, including anonymously published attack websites using fabrications, false testimonials, etc., in an attempt to besmirch Griffin's character. The publisher of two such sites is eventually identified as Nagashiva Yronwode, an initiate of a Thelemic hybrid order licensed to use the Golden Dawn name in the U.S.A., calling itself the "Open Source Order of the Golden Dawn" (O.S.O. - G.D.). The O.S.O. - G.D. is further linked to the anonymous defamation campaign when its leaders, Joseph Max, Sam Webster, and Barbara Cormack, sign an open letter in an official capacity containing a diatribe giving explicit directions to one of these defamation sites. Robert Zink, leader of a Regardie-based "astral initiation" group licensed to use the Golden Dawn name in the U.S.A., the so-called the "Esoteric Order of the Golden Dawn" (E.O.G.D.), is additionally implicted in the proliferation of the "anonymous defamation websites," when Zink writes a long diatribe directing "Golden Dawn Blog" to one such site. This creates the distinct impression of a defamation campaign orchestrated between various Regardie-based "Golden Dawn" groups jealous of lineage.
David Griffin is unsuccessfully sued for trademark infringement in the U.S.A., while the plaintiff meanwhile continues to use Griffin's mark in the European Union. Griffin files well founded counter-claims for breach of contract and tortuous interference in the internal affairs of the European world headquarters of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn.
Desmond Bourke passes. Immediately following Bourke's death, once he can no longer set the record straight or seek redress for libel, Pat Zalewski and others begin to attack Bourke's reputation and affiliations, circulating a letter which Zalewski falsely portrays as representing Bourke's having denied having any Golden Dawn affiliation to begin with.
Trademark litigation is settled by the parties. The November 20, 1996 agreement, supra is superceded by the January 17, 2007 Settlement Agreement adopted by the U.S. District Court on February 12, 2007. The agreement remains under supervision of the court upon motion to Enforce by either party. Griffin and the European, international world headquarters of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn are recognized as the sole and exclusive owners of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn® trademark in the European Union (OHIM reg. 000063925) as well as of The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn International® trademark in Canada (CIPO Reg. TMA510387). To avoid confusion with the other party, however, the European headquartered H.O.G.D. agrees to use the name Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, the outer order of the Rosicrucian Order of Alpha et Omega® in the U.S.A.
The European headquartered H.O.G.D.® publicly reveals that its Third Order curriculum includes Hermetic "Inner" Alchemy, which uses the subtle fires of the body, including love and sexuality, to transmute the "lead" of the physical body (or "Prima Materia") into the "gold" of a solar body, into which the Adept projects his or her consciousness at the moment of death, thus becoming consciously immortal. They further reveal the curriculum includes certain elementary sexual practices deriving from Hermetic Inner Alchemy and Alchemical Magic, that were once given once given to Mathers for the first Magisterium (Magister Templi).
These revelations spark a renewed round of controversy defamation against the order from the Regardie-based groups. Griffin continues to be disparaged on a website belonging to Aaron Leitch, member of yet another group.
See it all ends in power squabbles.
|24-10-2009, 07:57 PM||#38|
Join Date: Sep 2009
Last edited by kadosh; 24-10-2009 at 07:58 PM.
|24-10-2009, 08:07 PM||#39|
Join Date: Sep 2009
The HOGD legal action in the USA: http://www.scribd.com/doc/5562929/Th...trate-Rept-Rec
The Golden Don: http://groups.google.com/group/alt.m...2298dff8d1519b
|24-10-2009, 09:32 PM||#40|
Join Date: Apr 2008
Why is profit always on a masons mind?maybe I should start a new thread.
IN Memory of Louise Jensen-Lest We Forget... http://www.davidicke.com/forum/showp...&postcount=633
Last edited by lightgiver; 24-10-2009 at 09:32 PM.
|focus on the wee spot|