27-01-2008, 07:47 PM
INDEX OF PAPERS
MYTHOLOGY OF SECRET SOCIETIES
Freemasons in the French Revolution
While it is both simplistic and specious to lay the responsibility for the French Revolution at the door of Freemasonry, there is no question that freemasons, as individuals, were active in building, and rebuilding, a new society. Considering the large number of bodies claiming masonic authority,1. . many men identified today as freemasons were probably unaware of each other’s masonic association and clearly cannot be seen as acting in concert. Yet they did share certain beliefs and ideals.
In 1789 the established power in France was a kingdom of God’s grace — however Louis XVI was a weak sovereign. The columns of established power had been the nobility, many of whose members now embraced the philosophers and rationalists, such as Voltaire; the clergy, whose lower hierarchy understood the misery inflicted on the lower classes; the army, whose members were drawn from and often sympathetic to the lower classes; and the public service, whose members were drawn from an educated bourgeoisie who saw themselves locked out from much political and social advancement.
A brief chronology of the
February 1787 : Assembly of "notables" called by Charles-Alexandre de Calonne
May 5, 1789 : Estates-General met at Versaille
July 14, 1789 : Parisian mob seized the Bastille.
Aug 4, 1789 : National Assembly abolished feudal regime and tithe
Aug 26, 1789 : Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Oct 5, 1789 : Paris mob marched on Versaille, brought King to Paris.
June 20, 1791 : Louis XVI tried to flee country.
April 20, 1791 : France declared war on Prussia and Austria.
Aug 10, 1792 : revolutionaries occupied Tuileries, imprisoned the royal family.
Jan 21, 1793 : Louise XVI executed.
Sept 5, 1793 : Reign of Terror (to July 27, 1794) by Committee of Public Safety
July 27, 1794 : (9 Thermidor II) "White Terror" coup against Jacobins and Robespierre by National Convention
Oct. 5, 1795 : Napoleon crushes Royalist attempt to seize power in Paris.
Nov, 1795 : Directory established (until Nov 9, 1799)
Nov. 9, 1799 : (Coup of 18-19 Brumaire VIII) Napoleon proclaimed end of the revolution and instituted Consulate.
Masonic lodges were first warranted in France in 1725. Two papal edicts, that of Pope Clemence XII on May 4, 1738 and that of Pope Benedict XIV on June 15, 1751, were never registered by the French Parliament and therefore never took effect. Prior to the revolutionary period there were 1,250 lodges in France with an estimated 40,000 members. French Freemasonry of the 18th century was an exclusive group, excluding Jews, actors, employees, workers and servants. The clergy were well represented, and the membership of some lodges, such as La Vertu in Clervaux, were composed entirely of Catholic clergymen. While the nobility were attracted to Freemasonry, the greater majority was made up of the bourgeoisie, to whom the masonic motto of equality appealed to their sense that they were the equal of the nobles.
Many of the army were freemasons. Bernadotte, who lead the troops expelled from Grenoble, and later was a general for Napoleon and then King of Sweden, was a freemason. The cautious response of the army to the outbreak of rebellion in Britany has been ascribed to the number of officers who were freemasons.
The rules for the Estates-General were developed by Minister Necker whose masonic membership is unproven but considered probable, while the election committees created by these rules are claimed to have been mainly composed of freemasons.
Less admirable, Louis Philippe Joseph, 5th duc d'Orleans from 1785, Grand Master of the Grand Orient and later "Citoyen Égalité" (1747/04/13 -1793/11/06), was driven by his hatred for his cousin the King. Within freemasonry two loosely knit groups can be seen to be developing: those who see the Duke as a symbol to achieve their goals of equality, and those who would use Freemasonry as a vehicle for their own political goals.
When the National Assembly is formed, out of the 1,336 delegates to the Estates-General at least 320, or 24%, are believed to have been freemasons.
1. There were a total of 35 representatives present at the Convent at Wilhelmsbad (July 16, 1782 - September 1, 1782), a meeting of the various bodies working the Strict Observance system of degrees in Europe. The Grand Lodge of Three Globes declaring its independence on January 30, 1784 and Italy partially reverting to the English system the following year. From this time practically moribund, the Strict Observance may be said to have continued to 1855 when the Danish Lodges adopted the Swedish Rite. In practice, it ceased to exist after the death of Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick in 1792. [Gould History of Freemasonry Vol. III p. 366-369, Chart I following p. 378] Any evaluation of French Freemasonry must take into account the large number of bodies claiming authority to confer degrees and warrant lodges: there were ten such bodies active in the days preceeding the French Revolution. Gould requires a fold-out chart to detail over thirty bodies that existed between 1725 and 1885, noting that he has only included those that exercised any considerable influence on the Grand Orient. The Chapter of Cleremont is noted as briefly uniting with the Grande Loge de France and then dieing out around 1780 while the Scots Directories are seen to have closed during the French Revolution and then dieing out around 1814. [Gould. Chart No. II following p. 440] ^
Gould, Robert Freke. The History of Freemasonry,Its Antiquities, Symbols, Constitutions, Customs, etc. Vol. III, New York, John C Yorston & Co., Publishers: 1886.
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27-01-2008, 07:52 PM
Adam Weishaupt founded the Illuminati of Bavaria on May 1, 1776 on the principles of his early training as a Jesuit. Originally called the Order of the Perfectibilists, "its professed object was, by the mutual assistance of its members, to attain the highest possible degree of morality and virtue, and to lay the foundation for the reformation of the world by the association of good men to oppose the progress of moral evil."1
MYTHOLOGY OF SECRET SOCIETIES
NEW ENGLAND SCARE
A Bavarian Illuminati primer
Compiled by Trevor W. McKeown
"As Weishaupt lived under the tyranny of a despot and priests, he knew that caution was necessary even in spreading information, and the principles of pure morality. This has given an air of mystery to his views, was the foundation of his banishment.... If Weishaupt had written here, where no secrecy is necessary in our endeavors to render men wise and virtuous, he would not have thought of any secret machinery for that purpose."
- Thomas Jefferson
It is difficult, in the modern English-speaking world, to determine exactly what the Illuminati of Bavaria really was. Although both John Robison and the Abbé Barruel 2 published their accusations and theories in English, the source documents have remained in their native German. Robison freely admitted that he had scanty knowledge of German and had derived all his information from other writers. 3 Unfortunately neither he nor Barruel were concerned with providing references for their sources. When they do quote from the papers and correspondence of the Order as published by the Bavarian government or the published works of Adam Weishaupt and Adolph Knigge, they also fail to provide context or citations.
Adam Weishaupt (1748 - 1830)
Adam Weishaupt was born February 6, 1748 at Ingolstadt and educated by the Jesuits. His appointment as Professor of Natural and Canon Law at the University of Ingolstadt in 1775, a position previously held by one of the recently disbanded Jesuits,4 gave, it is said, great offence to the clergy. "Weishaupt, whose views were cosmopolitan, and who knew and condemned the bigotry and superstitions of the Priests, established an opposing party in the University...." 5 Weishaupt was not then a freemason; he was initiated into a Lodge of Strict Observance, Lodge Theodore of Good Council (Theodor zum guten Rath), at Munich in 1777.*
Most information regarding the rituals and objectives of the order is derived from papers and correspondence found in a search of Xavier Zwack’s residence in Landshut on October 11, 1786, and a search of Baron Bassus’s castle of Sondersdorf in Bavaria in 1787. 6 These documents were published by the Bavarian government, under the title: Einige Originalschriften des Illuminaten Ordens, Munich, 1787. Perhaps the best English exposition on the Order is found in Chapter III of Vernon L. Stauffer’s New England and the Bavarian Illuminati, pp. 142-228.
As an example of the mythology that surrounds the history of the Illuminati, note that Barruel claimed that Lanz, an Illuminati courier and apostate priest, was struck by lightning, thus revealing Weishaupt’s papers to the authorities, but this does not appear to be substantiated. This error was widely reprinted and enlarged on by subsequent anti-masons whose lack of research and disdain for historical accuracy has lead them to confuse Johann Jakob Lanz (d.1785), a non-Illuminati secular priest in Erding, and friend of Weishaupt, with Franz Georg Lang, a court advisor in Eichstätt who was active in the Illuminati under the name Tamerlan.
Barruel mistakenly translated "weltpriester", or secular priest, as apostate priest and subsequent writers such as Webster and Miller have repeated this error. Eckert renamed Weishaupt’s friend as Lanze and had him struck by lightning while carrying dispatches in Silesia. Miller cited Eckert but renamed Lanz as Jacob Lang and placed the lightning strike in Ratisbon. This is a minor detail in the history but it demonstrates the lack of accuracy often displayed by detractors of the Illuminati.7
Neither Robison nor Barruel deny that the professed goal of the Order was to teach people to be happy by making them good — to do this by enlightening the mind and freeing it from the dominion of superstition and prejudice. But they refused to accept this at face value. Where Weishaupt and Knigge promoted a freedom from church domination over philosophy and science, Robison and Barruel saw a call for the destruction of the church. Where Weishaupt and Knigge wanted a release from the excesses of state oppression, Robison and Barruel saw the destruction of the state. Where Weishaupt and Knigge wanted to educate women and treat them as intellectual equals, Robison and Barruel saw the destruction of the natural and proper order of society.
The rituals were of a rationalistic and not occult nature. Status as a freemason was not required for initiation into the Order of Illuminati since the fourth, fifth and sixth degrees of Weishaupt and Baron Adolphe-François-Frederic Knigge’s system practically duplicated the three degrees of symbolic Freemasonry. Although Knigge claimed to have a system of ten degrees, the last two appear never to have been fully worked up.8
Baron Adolph Knigge (1752 - 1796)
"The Order was at first very popular, and enrolled no less than two thousand names upon its registers.... Its Lodges were to be found in France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Poland, Hungary, and Italy. Knigge, who was one of its most prominent working members, and the auther of several of its Degrees, was a religious man, and would never have united with it had its object been, as has been charged, to abolish Christianity. But it cannot be denied, that in the process of time abuses had crept into the Institution and that by the influence of unworthy men, the system became corrupted; yet the course accusations of Barruel and Robison are known to be exaggerated, and some of them altogether false.... The Edicts [on June 22, 1784, for its suppression] of the Elector of Bavaria [Duke Karl Theodor] were repeated in March and August, 1785 and the Order began to decline, so that by the end of the eighteenth century it had ceased to exist.... it exercised while in prosperity no favorable influence on the masonic institution, nor any unfavorable effect on it by its dissolution."9
In 1785 Weishaupt was deprived of his chair and banished with pension from the country. He refused the pension and moved to Regenburg, subsequently finding asylum with Ernst II, the Count of Saxe-Gotha. Weishaupt was later appointed a professor at the University of Gottingen, remaining there until his death on 18 November 1830.10
Henry Wilson Coil describes the order as a "short lived, meteoric and controversial society"11 while George Kenning refers to it as a "mischievous association".12 In his own defence, Weishaupt wrote:
"Whoever does not close his ear to the lamentations of the miserable, nor his heart to gentle pity; whoever is the friend and brother of the unfortunate; whoever has a heart capable of love and friendship; whoever is steadfast in adversity, unwearied in the carrying out of whatever has been once engaged in, undaunted in the overcoming of difficulties; whoever does not mock and despise the weak; whose soul is susceptible of conceiving great designs, desirous of rising superior to all base motives, and of distinguishing itself by deeds of benevolence; whoever shuns idleness; whoever considers no knowledge as unessential which he may have the opportunity of acquiring, regarding the knowledge of mankind as his chief study; whoever, when truth and virtue are in question, despising the approbation of the multitude, is sufficiently courageous to follow the dictates of his own heart, - such a one is a proper candidate." 13
"The tenor of my life has been the opposite of everything that is vile; and no man can lay any such thing to my charge." 14
As regards any information derived from the celebrated anti-mason, John Robison 15: "In the (London) Monthly Magazine for January 1798 there appeared a letter from Böttiger, Provost of the College of Weimar, in reply to Robison’s work, charging that writer with making false statements, and declaring that since 1790 'every concern [sic] of the Illuminati has ceased.' Böttiger also offered to supply any person in Great Britain, alarmed at the erroneous statements contained in the book above mentioned, with correct information." 16
Following is a short list of the more notable members:
Adam Weishaupt Professor †
Adolph Von Knigge Baron †
Xavier von Zwack Lawyer, judge and electoral councillor †
Christoph Friedrich Nicolai [Nicholai] Bookseller †
Westenrieder Professor †
Hertel Canon †
Thomas Maria De Bassus Baron †
Johann Simon Mayr Composer
Dietrich Mayor of Strasbourg
Johann J. C. Bode Privy councillor ‡
William von Busche Baron ‡
Saint Germain compte de §
de Constanzo Marquis
Ferdinand of Brunswick Duke *
Ernst of Gotha Duke *
Johann W. Goethe author *
Of the 67 names published by the Abbé Barruel, 10 were professors, 13 were nobles, 7 were in the church, 3 were lawyers and the balance were drawn from the growing middle class: mostly government officials and merchants and a few military officers. 17
John M. Roberts claims that "[Weishaupt] rapidly rationalized difficulties growing out of his own rashness and taste for intrigue as the product of obscurantism and soon envisaged wider purposes for his society"18 while Robert Gilbert feels that Christopher McIntosh "overestimates the strength and significance of the Illuminati."19
Researchers are directed to a list of books and pamphlets written by Weishaupt found at the end of this paper. A further bibliography can be found in Vernon L. Stauffer’s New England and the Bavarian Illuminati, pp. 185-86. The United Grand Lodge of England Library catalogue includes: P.4. Adam Weishaupt, Uber den allgorischen Geist des Alterthums. Regensburg, 1794. 8vo.
Evidence would suggest that the Bavarian Illuminati was nothing more than a curious historical footnote. Certainly, this is the opinion of masonic writers. Conspiracy theorists though, are not noted for applying Occam’s razer and have decided that there are connections between the Illuminati, Freemasonry, the Trilateral Commission, British Emperialism, International Zionism and communism (if you read the writings of Alberto Rivera and Jack T. Chick of Chino California), that all lead back to the Vatican (or if David Icke is to be believed, the British house of Windsor and extra-terrestrial lizard people) in a bid for world domination. Believe what you will but there is no evidence that any Illuminati survived its founders.
It should be noted that the compiler of these notes, and of the Anti-masonry FAQ, is neither the founder nor the moderator of the newsgroup alt.illuminati. This unmoderated newsgroup was created by Gregg Bloom, a software programmer and systems manager, on April 16, 1993. He has never posted to the newsgroup. Peter Trei posted the Bavarian Illuminati FAQ in November 1992 and Trevor W. McKeown first posted the Bavarian Illuminati Primer on February 18, 1996. Neither participated in the creation of the newsgroup nor are active in maintaining any archive. While a number of online cataloguers of FAQs have automatically credited Trevor W. McKeown as the newsgroup moderator, this is an error.
After the Illuminati
The Encyclopaedia Britannica refers to Illuminati "cells" in an article on eighteenth century Italy as "republican freethinkers, after the pattern recently established in Bavaria by Adam Weishaupt."20 and as a "rationalistic secret society" in an article on Roman Catholicism.21 Depending on your perspective, the lack of any detailed information on the Illuminati in the Encyclopaedia Britannica can be ascribed to their current power and secretiveness or to the much simpler explanation that the editors found the order to be of little importance in the flow of history and social development.
It is unfortunate that conspiracy theorists have so confused the issue with claims of Illuminati complicity that the real conspiracies, the real danger to a free and open society, so often go unreported or unremarked.
Eliphas Lévi made the following unsubstantiated juxapositions in 1860:
"... it was this same memory handed on to secret associations of Rosicrucians, Illuminati and Freemasons which gave a meaning to their strange rites...." 22
"...under the names of Magic, Manicheanism, Illuminism and Masonry...." 23
"The maniacal circles of pretended illuminati go back to the bacchantes who murdered Orpheus. 24
"Long before there was any question of mediums and their evocations in America and France, Prussia had its illuminati and seers, who had habitual communications with the dead." 25
There is a secret correspondence belonging to the reign [of King Frederick William] which is cited by the Marquis de Luchet in his work against the illuminati..." 26
More important than the existence of any illuminati after 1784, was the fear that they existed. John M. Roberts, in his Mythology of Secret Societies details this concern of European rulers, and concludes that their oppressive reactions to this fear provoked the very revolutions they sought to prevent. Another insight into how this fear outstripped the facts can be found in Vernon L. Stauffer’s New England and the Bavarian Illuminati (1918).
Although attempts have been made to revive the order, none appear to have survived their founders. As an example, William Westcott, in exchange for the Swedenborgian Rite, received membership in the "Order of the Illuminati" from Theodor Reuss in 1902. Documentation is not available, nor is any explanation or description of this "Order" given. 27
These societies are only of interest insofar as they have been claimed by anti-masons and conspiracy theorists to demonstrate a perceived long-term anti-christian conspiracy. There is no similarity between the objectives of these societies and the Bavarian Illuminati.
Hesychasts: Hesychasm is a form of Eastern Christian monastic life requiring uninterrupted prayer. Dating from the 13th century, it was confirmed by the Orthodox Church in 1341, 1347 and 1351, and popularized by the publication of the "Philokalia" in 1782.
Alumbrados: (Spanish : 'enlightened') A mystical movement, at one time lead by La Beata de Piedrahita (d. 1511); first recorded about 1492 in Spain (a varient spelling, aluminados, is found in 1498). They believed that the human soul could enter into direct communication with the Holy Spirit and, due to their extravagant claims of visions and revelations, had three edicts issued against them by the Catholic Inquisition, the first on 23 September 1525. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, "some of its features reappear in the Quietism of the Spaniard Michael de Molinos". Although Ignatius of Loyola — founder of the Jesuits in 1534, and composer of the "Constitutions" of the Society of Jesus — was brought before an ecclesiastical commission in Alcalá in 1527 to determine if his teachings were heretical, he was cleared of any suspicion that he was an alumbrado, He wrote nothing that would suggest he accepted their beliefs.28 The name translates as 'illuminati' but the name is the only similarity with the later Bavarian Illuminati. 29
Guérinets: The alumbrados, under the name of Illuminés, arrived in France from Seville in 1623, and were joined in 1634 by Pierre Guérin, curé of Saint-Georges de Roye, whose followers in Picardy and Flanders, known as Guérinets, were suppressed in 1635 (Jean Hermant 1650-1725, Histoire des hérésies, Rouen : 1727). "Another and obscure body of Illumines came to light in the south of France in 1722, and appears to have lingered till 1794, having affinities with those known contemporaneously in this country as 'French Prophets,' an offshoot of the Camisards." [Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1911 edition.]
Societe des Illumines d'Avignon: Formed by Dom Antoine Joseph de Pernetti and the Polish Count Thaddeus Leszczy Grabianka in Avignon, France in 1786 (Kenning says 1787); later moving to Montpellier as the "Acadamy of True Masons". Although Kloss claims they were in existence in 1812, they would seem to have disappeared in the French Revolution.
Illuminated Theosophists or Chastanier’s Rite: A 1767 modification of Pernetti’s "Hermetic Rite" that later merged with the London Theosophical Society in 1784.
Concordists: A secret order established in Prussia by M. Lang, on the wreck of the Tugendverein (Union of the Virtuous), which latter Body was instituted in 1790 [Miller says 1786] by Henrietta and us Herz as a successor of the Illuminati [or Moses Mendelssohn]. According to Thomas Frost, Secret Societies of the European Revolution, vol. i, p. 183 [cited in Occult Theocrasy, p. 377.] a second Tugendbund was formed by von Stein in 1807. It was suppressed in 1812 by the Prussian Government, on account of its supposed political tendencies, and was revived briefly between 1830-33.
World League of Illuminati: Allegedly the singer and journalist Theodor Reuss "re-activated" the Order of Illuminati in Munich in 1880. Leopold Engel founded his World League of Illuminati in Berlin in 1893. From these two sprung the Ordo Illuminatorum which was still active in Germany as late as the mid-1970s. Much research has been compiled by Peter-R. Koenig.
Illuminates of Stockholm: The Illuminated Chapter of Swedish Rite Freemasonry is currently composed of approximately 60 past or current Grand Lodge officers who have received the honorary 11th degree. It makes no claim to be related, historically or philisophically, with the Bavarian Illuminati and strictly speaking should not be included in this list.
Die Alte Erleuchtete Seer Bayerns: Alleged by Marc Lachance to have been founded in 1947 by employees of the Munich newspaper, Suddeutsche Zeitung, there are unsubstantiated claims to a longer lineage. With some 100 members claimed in Bavaria, Baden-Wurttenburg and Thuringia, they have disavowed ritual, and keep organised structure to a minimum. 30
The Illuminati Order: The Illuminati Order: Founded sometime prior to 1988, this Tallahassee Florida based group was brought online in 2001 by Solomon Tulbure [1969/10/18 - 2004/11/17], one time Grand Master whose idiosyncratic behaviour later estranged him from the group. Currently the Illuminati Order can be found online at illuminati-order.com.
Orden Illuminati: Another addition to the list of claimants to the Illuminati tradition, this group was founded in Spain in 1995 by Gabriel López de Rojasn and can be found online at <www.ordeniluminati.com>
1. Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, Albert G. Mackey. Richmond, Virginia: Macoy Publishing. 1966, p.474.
2.Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism, Written in French by the Abbé Barruel, and translated into English by the Hon. Robert Clifford, F.R.S. & A. S. "Princes and Nations shall disappear from the face of the Earth ... and this revolution shall be the work of secret societies." Weishaupt’s Discourse for the Mysteries. Part I. The Antichristian Conspiracy. Second Edition, revised and corrected. London: Printed for the Translator, by T. Burton, No. 11, Gate-fleet, Lincoln’s-Inn Fields. Sold by E. Booker, No. 56, New Bond-Street. 1798 [Entered at Stationers Hall.] p. 261.
3. Proofs of a Conspiracy against all the Religions and Governments of Europe carried on in the Secret Meetings of the Freemasons, Illuminati, and Reading Societies, collected from Good Authorities, John Robison (1739 - 1805). printed by George Forman for Cornelious David, Edinburgh: 1797. (531 pages). Postscript, p. 2.
4. "In 1773 Pope Clement XIV, under pressure especially from the governments of France, Spain and Portugal, issued a decree abolishing the order. The society’s corporate existence was maintained in Russia, where political circumstances—notably the opposition of Catherine II the Great—prevented the canonical execution of the suppression. The demand that the Jesuits take up their former work, especially in the field of education and in the missions, became so insistent that in 1814 Pope Pius VII reestablished the society." The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, Chicago: 1989, 15th edition.
5. Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, Albert G. Mackey. Richmond, Virginia: Macoy Publishing. 1966, p. 1099.
*. In a footnote to letter No 6 to "Ajax", undated but from the beginning of 1777, Weishaupt writes: "I will go to Munich before the carnival, and will be received in the famous Freymaurer Orden (Order of F∴ M∴). Ne timeas. Our business is in good way; we learn how to know a new nexus (bond, secrecy) and we will become thus reliquis fortiores (stronger than the others). " This would be sometime before 12 February 1777. Cited in La Conjuration des Illuminés, Henry Coston. Paris: Henry Coston, 1979. pp. xxxvii-xxxviii. Pb. 304 pp.
6. The Secret Societies of all ages and Countries [in two volumes], Charles William Heckethorn. London: George Redway. 1897 p.310. Cf. Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism.
7. "Among his adepts was one LANZ, an apostate priest. Weishaupt designed him as the person to carry his mysteries and conspiracies into Selesia. His mission was already fixed, and Weishaupt was giving him his last instructions, when a thunder-bolt from Heaven struck the apostate dead, and that by the side of Weishaupt. The Brethren, in their first fright, had not recourse to their ordinary means for diverting the papers of the deceased adept from the inspection of the magistrate. [footnote] See the Apology of the Illuminees, P. 62." Barruel. p. 244.
Cf.: "When my late friend Lanz was struck by lightning at my side in the year 1785 in Regensburg, what an opportunity this could have provided me to play the penitent and remorseful hypocrite, and thus gain the confidence of my persecutors." trans. from : "Als im Jahre 1785 in Regensburg mein seeliger Freund Lanz an meiner Seite vom Blitz ersclagen wurde, welche Gelegenheit hätte ich gehabt, den reumütigen und bußfertigen Henchler zu machen und auf diese Art das Zutrauen meiner Verfolger zu erwerben?" Kurze Rechtfertigung meiner Absichten. Frankfort and Leipzig, 1787. Quoted in Die Illuminaten, Quellen und Text zur Aufklärungsideologie des Illuminatenordens (1776-1785) Herausgegeben von Jan Rachold. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1984. p. 363. Also see pp. 127, 132, 140, 150-160, 168 for Franz Georg Lang.
8. Mackey. p. 475.
9. Mackey. p. 1099.
10.Wikipedia provides an uncited date of 18 November 1830 (accessed 2007/11/30). Albert Mackey's Encyclopedia of Freemasonry notes 1811.
11.Coil’s Masonic Encyclopedia, Henry Wilson Coil. New York: Macoy Publishing. 1961 p. 545.
12. Kenning’s Masonic Cyclopaedia and Handbook of Masonic Archeaology, History and Biography, ed. Rev. A. F. A. Woodford. London: 1878. p. 326.
13. Adam Weishaupt, An Improved System of the Illuminati, Gotha: 1787.
14. Adam Weishaupt (1748 - 1811), An Apology for the Illuminati, Gotha: 1787.
15. See biographical notes: New England and the Bavarian Illuminati, Chapter III, pp. 142-228. Vernon L. Stauffer. 1918. with bibliographical notes.
16. Heckethorn, p. 314.
17. Heckethorn, pp. 305-16; Barruel, pp. 202-05. Estimates of the total membership have ranged from Le Forestier’s 650 to Albert MacKey’s 2000.
*Noted in Man, Myth & Magic. No. 50, p. 1404. Ellic Howe [1910-1991]. BPC Publishing Ltd., London: 1970. [also source for portraits of Weishaupt and Knigge.]
†Also listed by Augustin Barruel (1741/10/02 - 1820/10/05). p. 202.
‡Barruel lists a "Bode, F. H." and a "Busche, F. H.". p. 202.
§Not listed by Barruel. Heckethorne does not note if this is General Claude-Louise, compte de Saint-Germain (1707/04/15 - 1778/01/15), Louise XVI’s minister of war, or the compte de Saint-Germain (c.1710 - 1784/02/27?), a celebrated adventurer known as der Wundermann who Cagliostro, in his Mémoires authentiques, claimed was the founder of Freemasonry.
18. J.M. Roberts, "The Mythology of Secret Societies", New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. 1972, pp. 123-4.
19. Christopher McIntosh, "The Rose Cross and the Age of Reason", Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1992, reviewed by Robert Gilbert in the Transactions of Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076, London: Butler & Tanner Ltd.1993 p. 241.
20. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition. Vol. 22, p. 223, 2b.
21. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition. Vol. 26, p. 937, 2b.
22. Eliphas Lévi. The History of Magic. Reprinted by Samual Weiser, Inc., New York: 1973. p. 32.
23. ibid. p. 65.
24. ibid p. 130.
25.ibid. Chapter VI: "The German Illuminati". p. 317.
26.ibid p. 317.
27.26.R.A. Gilbert. "Chaos out of order: the rise and fall of the Swedenborgian Rite". Ars Quatuor Coronatorum. Transactions of Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076. Volume 108 for the Year 1995. Edited by Robert A. Gilbert. p. 134.
28."The Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius", trans. by L.J. Puhl (1951); "The Constitutions of the Society of Jesus; Translated with an Introduction and a Commentary", by G.E. Ganss:1970.
29.Alumbrados: Marcelino Menéndez y Pelayo (1856/11/03-1912/05/19), Los Heterodoxos Espanioles, 1881, vol. v. ; aluminados : Francisco Lopez de Villalobos, Sumario de la medicina, 1498, reprinted in vol. xxiv of the publications of the Sociedad de bibliofilos espanoles, Madrid : 1886. Also see John E. Longhurst, "Alumbrados, erasmistas y luteranos en el proceso de Juan de Vergara," in Cuadernos de historia de Espana, vols. xxvii, 1958.
30.Marc Etienne Lachance is a German freelance database and website developer with an interest in role-playing games, the Church of the SubGenius and Principia Discordia. There is no corroboration for his claims, first recorded in the usenet newsgroup alt.politics.nationalism.white on 1998/09/26. [FNORD]
Primary source published texts:
Die Bibliothek des Deutschen Freimaurermuseums in Bayreuth - Katalog.
Knigge, Adolph, Freiherr von (1752-1796), Freimauer- und Illuminatenschriften. Raabe Paul [Editor] Samtliche Werke / Knigge, Adolph, Facsim. of 1781-1873 eds & transcription of MS. Munchen, Sau: Nendeln : KTO, 1978-92.
Christoph Friedrich Nicolai (3/18/1733 - 1/8/1811), Versuch über die Besschuldigungen welch dem Tempelherrnorden gemacht worden und über dessen Geheimniss; nebst einem Anhange uber das Entstehen der Freimaurergesellschaft. [An Essay on the accusations made against the Order of Knights Templar and their mystery; with an Appendix on the origin of the Fraternity of Freemasons], Berlin: 1782.
Weishaupt, Adam, Die Illuminaten : Quellen und Texte zur Aufklärungsideologie des Illuminatenordens (1776-1785) / herausgegeben von Jan Rachold. Berlin : Akademie-Verlag, 1984. 409 p. ; 20 cm. LCCN: 85111344
Weishaupt, Adam, Über die Selbsterkenntnis. Ihre Hindernisse und Vorteile. Nach dem Original von 1794. [3. Aufl. hrsg. im Auftrage von Ordo Illuminatorum (u.a.) Zürich, Psychosophische Gesellschaft, 1966] 200 p. 15 cm. LCCN: 67106086.
Weishaupt, Adam, Illuminatenorden. Die neuesten Arbeiten des Spartacus und Philo in dem Illuminaten-Orden jetzt zum erstenmal gedruckt und zur Beherzigung bey gegenwärtigen Zeitläuften herausgeben. [n.p.] 1794. 200, 90, 77 p. 20 cm. LCCN: 77465925.
Weishaupt, Adam, Ueber die Gründe und Gewisheit der menschlichen Erkenntniss; zur Prüfung der Kantischen Critik der reinen Vernunft. Nürnberg, in der Grattenauerischen Buchhandlung, 1788. [Bruxelles, Culture et Civilisation, 1969] 204 p. 19 cm. LCCN: 73357961.
Weishaupt, Adam, Apologie der Illuminaten ... Frankfurth und Leipzig [i.e. Nürnberg] In der Grattenauerischen buchhandlung, 1786. p. cm. Zweifel über die Kantischen Begriffe von Zeit und Raum. LCCN: 09011125.
Weishaupt, Adam, Zweifel über die Kantischen Begriffe von Zeit und Raum. Nürnberg, 1788. [Bruxelles, Culture et Civilisation, 1968] 120 p. 19 cm. LCCN: 79459272.
"Illuminism and the French Revolution". Edinburgh Review. vol. 204, July 1906. pp. 35-60.
Jedediah Morse and the Bavarian Illuminati: An Essay on the Rhetoric of Conspiracy Central States Speech Journal Fall/Winter 1988. pages 293-303.
New England and the Bavarian Illuminati Chapter III, pp. 142-228. Vernon L. Stauffer. 1918. with bibliographical notes.
Bavarian Illuminati FAQ Ver 1.2. Peter Trei. Jan. 1994. Further references to popular usage of the term "Illuminati." Mirrored frequently online. Also see www.anti-masonry.info/alt.illuminati_FAQ.html.
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27-01-2008, 08:00 PM
THE SCIENCE OF
Decoding the African
By Laird Scranton
Published by Inner Traditions
208 pages, paperback
How could a seemingly primitive group of natives in Mali, West Africa, come by advanced knowledge about the star Sirius, and its companions?
This knowledge was unavailable to our scientists and astronomers until very recently. The question, once posed, became open to a wide variety of interpretations.
Some of the more unusual were that the knowledge came from ancient Egyptians, the Atlanteans, Victorian explorers, and even extraterrestrials. The most prosaic answer is that these natives somehow absorbed the information from travellers, but this just removes the question one step further – how did the travellers come by it?
Author Laird Scranton suggests this advanced data does not stop with a single star. He feels that it permeates the Dogon culture and they had an intrinsic knack of presenting such things as creation theory, genetics, quantum physics and string theory, in symbolic form.
Scranton is uniquely qualified to discuss these matters, as he is a person who became interested in Dogon mythology in the early 1990’s. Originally an independent software designer, he decided to launch a 10 year study of ancient myth, language and cosmology, and the result is this book.
John Anthony West, an expert Egyptologist, who contributes the foreword, is convinced that Scranton is on the right track in pinpointing the Egyptians of ancient times as the most likely source of Dogon cosmology.
He says there is substantial evidence these ancient people were in turn influenced by a civilisation that preceded them.
Scranton set himself a formidable task in trying to understand Dogon metaphors, but that is where his computer knowledge became invaluable.
He finds that the Dogon obsession with the numbers 2 and 8 may be reflected in the electron structure of both water and copper. If that were the only evidence foradvanced knowledge, it could be dismissed as a fortuitous coincidence, but there is much more, such as the similarity of a Dogon structure to the cone of space-time.
Four creative stages of the Dogon – bummo, yala, tonu and toy – bear resemblance to fourtypes of forcecarrying particles in quantum physics. A Dogon drawing reproduced in the book is an amazing likeness to a scientific diagram of electron orbit shape, based on mathematical calculations of the most probable locations of electrons as they orbit around a nucleus.
Another drawing illustrates perfectly the property of “spin” in sub-atomic particles. Stephen Hawking alludes to “more than 200 elementary particles.” The Dogon figure of 266 seeds or signs appears to relate to particles we haven’t even discovered yet!
String theory means the different vibrational patterns of a fundamental string give rise to different masses and force charges. Yet another Dogon drawing corresponds with what we know about such vibrational patterns, and the comparison is absolutely astounding.
Scranton says: “Although a string is many times smaller than the smallest particle that can be imaged by present day scientists, the Dogon retain a clear sense of what their primordial thread looks like.”
Moreover, it seems the Egyptians were also possessors of advanced understanding – for example the wave/particle duality of matter is depicted perfectly in the hieroglyphic spelling of the Egyptian word “nu.”
The Egyptian creator of man, ptah (or pteh) had a genetic connection in the hieroglyphics that made up his name. There is a double spiral very much like the double helix in DNA, the building block of life.
Archaeology says little about what gave Egyptian culture its jumpstart in sophistication. There is even an echo of Dogon influence in ancient Judaism.
Then, too, the opening of Amma’s egg, a potent legend of the Dogon, matches the Big Bang that originated the universe we know.
Correspondences can be found as far afield as the Maoris of New Zealand where the “po” – a primary component of matter – is virtually identical in both creation stories.
What is the link shared by both civilisations thousands of miles apart? Serpent symbolism crops up in many world cultures. If humanity was helped by visitors from the stars, it may be that reptilian occupants of UFOs are not so far fetched after all. The serpent religion suffered a fall in popularity, as it graduated from all powerful deities to evil demonic powers.
The author makes a convincing case for some intervening force in ancient times that left extremely important clues to their existence with the prevailing natives, knowing perhaps that someday someone would be aware of their presence.
Whether this force was aliens from the stars, or a very advanced human culture that has long since vanished from history will probably be forever a mystery.
Can all the similarities referenced by Scranton be merely coincidence? A question to deeply ponder.
– Reviewed by W. Ritchie Benedict in New Dawn No. 102
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